|Scientific Name:||Haliaeetus albicilla|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||The species has its strongholds in Norway and Russia (which together hold >55% of the European population (BirdLife International 2004), and important populations in south-west Greenland (to Denmark), Sweden, Poland and Germany. Smaller numbers breed in Iceland, United Kingdom, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, the former Yugoslav states, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Moldova, Greece, Turkey, Iran, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Mongolia, mainland China, and Japan. It formerly bred in Algeria and may still do so in Iraq.|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Greenland; Hungary; Iceland; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Nepal; Netherlands; Norway; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Russian Federation; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan
Vagrant:Bangladesh; Belgium; Bhutan; Cyprus; Egypt; Ireland; Italy; Lebanon; Luxembourg; Malta; Myanmar; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Saudi Arabia; Spain (Canary Is.); Spain (Canary Is.); Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Thailand; Tunisia; United States
Present - origin uncertain:Faroe Islands; Tajikistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 5,000-6,600 breeding pairs, equating to 15,000-19,800 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 50-74% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 20,300-39,600 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; < c.100 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species requires large and open expanses of lake, coast or river valley, within the boreal, temperate and tundra zones, nearby to undisturbed cliffs or open stands of large, old-growth trees for nesting. Its food is vertebrates (fish, mammals and especially birds), from marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. It is mainly migratory in the north and east of its breeding range, but sedentary elsewhere.|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Major Threat(s):||Threats that affect this species include loss and degradation of wetlands, human disturbance and persecution, environmental pollution, collision with wind generators (Krone and Scharnweber 2003), and indiscriminate use of poisons. Modern forestry methods reduce the availability of suitable nesting habitat. Although some losses may be taking place in Asian Russia owing to increased logging and oil industry development, these are outweighed by increases in Europe.|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II. CMS Appendix I and II.
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Krone, O.; Scharnweber, C. 2003. Two White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilia) collide with wind generators in northern Germany. 37: 174-176.
Thiollay, J.-M. 1996. Oiseaux de la Réunion: vers une necessaire union des efforts de tous les ornithologues? Courrier de la Nature: 4.
Tucker, G. M.; Heath, M. F. 1994. Birds in Europe: their conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Haliaeetus albicilla. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 May 2013.|
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