|Scientific Name:||Uria lomvia|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species has a circumpolar distribution in the arctic and high arctic regions of North America, Europe and Asia breeding on coasts and islands. It breeds as far south as the Kuril Islands (Russia), Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada) and Alaska (USA), and also winters off the coast of central Japan1.|
Native:Canada; Faroe Islands; Greenland; Iceland; Japan; Norway; Russian Federation; Russian Federation; Russian Federation; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; United States
Vagrant:Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Ireland; Latvia; Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number > c.22,000,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996), while the population is Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The Thick-billed Guillemot is exclusively marine ranging along sea coasts and as far offshore as the continental shelf edge. It feeds chiefly on fish, squid and crustaceans throughout the year, supplemented by polychaetes and molluscs. Fish predominate during summer with the main species varying with locality and are usually caught close to the colony. Birds arrive at colonies in the spring though the start of laying is variable depending on sea temperature, laying latest where the temperatures are lowest (e.g. early July in the high Arctic). It is a highly colonial, usually forming immense aggregations on sea cliffs laying on narrow ledges. The extent and timing of post-breeding dispersal is largely determined by ice conditions and food availability. During the winter periods it can be found in large flocks at sea, likely related to the non-random distribution of winter prey (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Gaston, A. J.; Gilchrist, H. G.; Hipfner, J. M. 2005. Climate change, ice conditions and reproduction in an Arctic nesting marine bird: Brunnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia L.). Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 832-841.
Gaston, A. J.; Gilchrist, H. G.; Mallory, M. L. 2005. Variation in ice conditions has strong effects on the breeding of marine birds at Prince Leopold Island, Nunavut. Ecography 28: 331-344.
Heide-Jorgensen, M. P.; Laidre, K. 2004. Declining extent of open-water refugia for top predators in Baffin Bay and adjacent waters. Ambio 33: 487-494.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Sandvik, H.; Erikstad, K. E;, Barrett, R. T.; Yoccoz, N. G. 2005. The effect of climate on adult survival in five species of North Atlantic seabirds. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 817-831.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Uria lomvia. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 June 2013.|
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