|Scientific Name:||Raphus cucullatus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Extinct ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
This species was found in Mauritius, but is now Extinct as a result of hunting by settlers and nest predation by introduced pigs. Birds thought to represent the last individuals were killed on the offshore islet Ile d'Ambre in 1662.
|Range Description:||Raphus cucullatus is known from numerous bones, specimen fragments, reports and paintings from Mauritius (Strickland and Melville 1848). It was last reported from an offshore islet by Iversen in 1662 (Cheke 1987), and although there was a report by an escaped slave in 1674 and statistical techniques indicate that it is likely to have persisted until 1690 (Roberts and Solow 2004), it is generally considered that all references to "dodos" thereafter refer to Red Rail Aphanapteryx bonasia (Cheke 2006).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It was mainly a species of the dry lowland forests (Owadally 1979), although possible mutualism with the upland tambalacoque tree Calvaria major (Temple 1977) suggests that it may have ranged into the hills (Hachisuka 1953). Evidence suggests it was predominantly herbivorous (Rijsdijk et al. 2009). The species was flightless (Livezey 1993) and tame (Hachisuka 1953).|
|Major Threat(s):||Due to its tameness and large size it was very heavily hunted for food by sailors (Hachisuka 1953).|
Cheke, A. S. 1987. An ecological history of the Mascarene Islands, with particular reference to extinctions and introductions of land vertebrates. In: Diamond, A.W. (ed.), Studies of Mascarene island birds, pp. 5-89. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
Cheke, A.S. 2006. Establishing extinction dates - the curious case of the Dodo Raphus cucullatus and the Red Hen Aphanapteryx bonasis. Ibis 148: 155-158.
Hachisuka, M. 1953. The Dodo and kindred birds. Witherby, London.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Livezey, B. C. 1993. An ecomorphological review of the Dodo (Raphus cucullatus) and Solitaire (Pezophaps solitaria), flightless Columbiformes of the Mascarene Islands. Journal of Zoology (London) 230: 247-292.
Owadally, A. W. 1979. The Dodo and the tambalacoque tree. Science 203: 1363-1364.
Rijsdijk, K. F.; Hume, J. P.; Bunnik, F.; Florens, F. B. V.; Baider, C.; Shapiro, B.; van der Plicht, J.; Janoo, A.; Griffiths, O.; van den Hoek Ostende, L. W.; Cremer, H.; Vernimmen, T.; De Louw, P. G. B.; Bholah, A.; Saumtally, S.; Porch, N.; Haile, J. 2009. Mid-Holocene vertebrate bone Concentration-Lagerstätte on oceanic island Mauritius provide a window into the ecosystem of the Dodo (Raphus cucullatus). Quaternary Science Reviews 28: 14-24.
Roberts, D. L.; Solow, A. R. 2003. When did the dodo become extinct? Nature 426(6464): 245.
Strickland, H. G.; Melville, A. G. 1848. The Dodo and its kindred. Reeve, Benham and Reeve, London.
Temple, S. A. 1977. Plant-animal mutualism: coevolution with Dodos leads to near extinction of plant. Science 197: 885-886.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Raphus cucullatus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 June 2013.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided|