|Scientific Name:||Bubo philippensis|
|Species Authority:||(Kaup, 1851)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
This species has a small, severely fragmented population, which may be undergoing a rapid decline as a result of extensive lowland deforestation throughout its range, plus perhaps hunting. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.
Bubo philippensis is endemic to the Philippines, where it is known from Luzon, Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Mindanao and possibly Sibuyan. Historically it was uncommon and the paucity of recent records suggests that it is now rare, although it is widespread at low density on Luzon and even nests on the fringes of Manila (D. Allen in litt. 2012).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It appears to be a sedentary resident of lowland forest, sometimes near watercourses, generally below 650 m but occasionally up to 1,250 m (e.g. on Leyte). It tolerates disturbed, selectively logged and secondary forest and even coconut plantations with patches of thick secondary growth. Studies of the species's pellets suggest it feeds on rodents and amphibians (D. Allen in litt. 2012).
|Major Threat(s):||Extensive lowland deforestation throughout its range will inevitably have had a major and continuing deleterious effect on its population. On Luzon, forest cover in the Sierra Madre has declined by 83% since the 1930s and illegal logging is common at two sites from where there are recent records. A substantial proportion of remaining lowland forest in the Philippines is leased to logging concessions, and mining applications pose an additional threat. Local pressures at Rajah Sikatuna National Park (Bohol), a key site, include illegal tree-cutting, agricultural expansion and soil erosion. Typhoons on Catanduanes in 1987 and 1996 destroyed large areas of forest. Hunting may be an additional threat.|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. There are recent records from several protected areas, including the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, Quezon and Mt Makiling national parks on Luzon, Mt Kitanglad and Mt Apo natural parks on Mindanao and Rajah Sikatuna National Park on Bohol. In the 1990s, it featured on a bilingual environmental awareness poster in the Only in the Philippines series. In 2005 the species was successfully bred in captivity for the first time and by 2007, 10 birds had been captive-bred (Anon. 2008).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further fieldwork using playback, to establish its current distribution and status. Propose and designate further key sites as formal protected areas (e.g. central Catanduanes and the Angat watershed). Improve habitat protection measures in existing protected areas, e.g. at Cayapa in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park and the U. P. Laguna Land Grant, in accordance with its official status. Use nest cameras to study the species's biology and raise interest in Philippine owls (D. Allen in litt. 2012).
Anon. 2008. ...and there's good news from the Eagle Owls too! World Owl Trust Newsletter: 3-4.
Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Bubo philippensis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2013.|
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