|Scientific Name:||Amazilia castaneiventris|
|Species Authority:||Gould, 1856|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Beltrán, M., Chaves, G., Cortes, O., Cuervo, A., Dávalos, L., Donegan, T., Hernandez-Jaramillo, A., Parra, J., Sabogal, D., Salaman, P., Stiles, F., Züchner, T. & Zuluaga, J.|
This species is classified as Endangered because it has a very restricted range which is severely fragmented, and in which continuing declines in habitat quality are likely.
Amazilia castaneiventris was formerly known from the slopes of the Serranía de San Lucas, Colombia where one specimen was taken in 1947 on the east slope of the serranía in Bolívar, but this population has not been rediscovered despite rapid assessment searches in 1999-2001 (T. Donegan in litt. 2008). Today, it appears to be restricted to the drier parts of the Magdalena Valley, Colombia, with a core range in the Chicamocha, Suarez and Chucuri valleys. Although there are various sites where the species is now known to be found, it is somewhat unpredictable in occurrence (partly influenced by poorly understood seasonal movements) and, at least in the Yariguies area, not locally abundant. Recent records from the rio Chucurri basin and La Paz are outside of and generally more humid than the dry valley system that forms the core of its range (J. O. Cortes in litt. 2009; D. C. Sabogal in litt. 2009). Extensive survey work by Fundacion ProAves has recorded the species at 14 sites. There are historic records from two sites in Santander (in 1962 and 1963), and three in Boyacá including the 1977 specimen from Tipacoque; recent work has again recorded the species at Tipacoque (J. Zuluaga in litt. 2009), it has now been recorded in eight municipalities including a rediscovered population in the environs of Soatá (Chavez and Cortes 2006, Cortes-Herrera et al. 2006, Cortes-Herrera et al. 2007, Parra et al. 2006) and there was a sighting in 2000 at Villa de Leyva (López-Lanús 2002), although this has not been confirmed, and subsequent visits to Villa de Leyva have failed to find the species (J. Cortes in litt. 2011). Historically, it was locally common, but trends are difficult to assess owing to a lack of baseline data. The species is often inexplicably rare in apparently suitable habitats and may go unrecorded for periods (J. Zuluaga in litt. 2009); elsewhere it appears to be resident. The increase in records of the species owes much to increased observer effort, but also may reflect nomadic movements in recent years linked to flowering events on which the species relies to some degree (J. Cortes in litt. 2009). The global population is roughly estimated at 3,780 individuals by extrapolating the species's known territory size by the area of suitable habitat (D. C. Sabogal in litt. 2009); however, it is unlikely to be evenly distributed throughout suitable habitats and this figure may represent an overestimate. Based on several years of surveys, J. Cortes (in litt. 2011) roughly estimated the global population at 1,200 individuals by extrapolating densities from Soata and Tipacoque in 2008-2011 to known habitat and suitable habitat of the species (J. Cortes in litt. 2011).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species has been recorded at a number of new sites in recent years. While still apparently rare in some areas, and nowhere abundant there is a comparatively large area of potentially suitable habitat. Its territory size has been estimated at 3-10 ha (D. C. Sabogal in litt. 2009), although territory sizes of seven individuals were estimated at 0.3 ha at Niceforo's Wren natural bird reserve (Peñuela and Archila 2010) and a density of 2.1 individuals/ ha has been reported at Soata (Cortes-Herrera 2006). Simple extrapolation of the lower end of D. C. Sabogal's (in litt. 2009) density range suggested a global population of 3,780 individuals. However, J. Cortes (in litt. 2011) roughly estimated the population at 1,200 individuals (extrapolating densities from Soata and Tipacoque in 2008-2011 to areas of potentially suitable habitat), and as the species may not be evenly distributed throughout suitable habitat, and is inexplicably rare in some areas, the population is cautiously assumed to fall within the band 1,000-2,499 individuals. This equates to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits dry valleys and some humid sites at 340-2,200 m, and possibly as low as 120 m in the Serranía de San Lucas (though the species has not been rediscovered at this site since its collection there, despite rapid assessment of the area in 1999-2001 (T. Donegan in litt. 2008)). Many records come from forest borders, bushy canyons and semi-arid areas vegetated with shrubs and low trees (López-Lanús 2002); the species apparently shows a preference for rivers and streams, but is regularly recorded at roadside flowering trees (Cortes-Herrera 2006). Local abundance of this species is apparently affected by area available of potential habitat (Tricanthera gigantean forest. [Cortes in litt. 2011]). However, it has been suggested that the species is tolerant of habitat degradation, having been recorded in pastures, fruit crops, coffee plantations and xerophytic scrub, where it exploits a wide variety of floral resources, e.g. cactus, guamo (Inga spp), banana (Musa sp), and coffee. Yatago (Trychanthera gigantea) flowers seem to be the most important nectar source (J. O. Cortes in litt. 2009, 2010). However, a study about foraging behaviour of this species in one of the driest areas of the Chicamocha canyon showed 15 different types of pollen collected from the species's body, the most common pollen types belonging to Bromeliaceae (Aechmea spp., Catopsis spp., Pitcairnia spp.) and Apocynaceae (Mocoa spp., Himatanthus spp., Temnadenia spp., Odontadenia spp., and Galactophora spp.) This could also shed light on the plants pollinated by this species (Peñuela and Archila 2010). The is tolerant of human activities; fieldwork since 2004 has identified new sites, expanded the range and provided new information that emphasizes the species is adapted to altered landscapes. For example, the Cerulean Warbler Bird Reserve in San Vicente de Chucuri, Santander, has both shade coffee and primary forest areas; three years of surveys by many groups and individuals across these habitats and area have only ever found castaneiventris in shade coffee, hedgerows and pasturelands (never in primary forest), while the species moves between available resources (P. Salaman in litt. 2008). However, the species may be less tolerant of degraded areas as breeding habitat. The breeding season is December-February (J. O. Cortes in litt. 2009), although a nest was found at the end of April 2009 in the Niceforo’s Wren natural bird reserve (Peñuela and Archila 2010). The species benefits from bee-keeping which promotes the planting of melliferous vegetation used by hummingbirds (Cortes-Herrera et al. 2006). In the driest areas it seems to undertake nomadic movements/short-distance migration in response to dry conditions when key floral resources may be unavailable (J. O. Cortes in litt. 2009). Project Chicamocha found that territory sizes of Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird remain constant during the year, except in the driest season (November to April) when the species is absent of the Niceforo’s Wren natural bird reserve (Peñuela and Archila 2010). Moreover, some individuals have been observed returning to the same territories after the driest season since 2004 (M. Beltran pers. comm. 2012).|
The Sagamoso and Lebrija valley systems support large human populations and have long been areas of high agricultural production. Natural habitat has been severely fragmented, and generally replaced by coffee plantations, light woodland and, to a lesser extent, pastures and plantain and sugarcane plantations (the latter is used for biofuel production). Semi-arid habitats are less threatened than humid forest (López-Lanús 2002), but are affected by livestock-grazing and seasonal burning for farming (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). The Serranía de San Lucas had held the largest tract of intact forest in north-west South America, but a gold rush began in 1996, and most of the eastern slopes have since been settled, logged and converted for agricultural and coca production (A. Cuervo in litt. 1999; L. Dávalos in litt. 1999; Donegan and Salaman 1999; P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Mining and cocaine production cause stream pollution (L. Dávalos in litt. 1999; Donegan and Salaman 1999; P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Immigration is continuing as road and oil pipelines extend into formerly inaccessible areas (A. Cuervo in litt. 1999; P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). It apparently suffers from subsistence hunting for food (Cortes-Herrera et al. 2006; J. O. Cortes in litt. 2009). Logging activities may have a negative impact (J. O. Cortes in litt. 2009). Part of its range is threatened by flooding by the Sogamoso dam (M. Beltran pers. comm. 2011).
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Project Chicamocha has identified 14 sites that hold the species, concentrating searches primarily in the dry valley system that drains the western slope of the East Andes in Colombia. Fundacion Colibri, Organizacion Ambiental Ocotea, Fundacion Ecodiversidad and Fundacion Quincha have worked with Amazilia castaneiventris from 2002 to 2011, with local community involvement at a reserve that supports the species. They intend to start a banding programme to study the species's ecology from December to February. NGOs have conducted activites with school children in elementary schools in four veredas municipalities of Soatá, Tipacoque and Susacon (J. Cortes in litt. 2011). Unlike other species found in the Yariguies, the new National Park there is probably not a significant step forwards for conservation of this species; the only known localities fall outside the Yariguies National Park boundary. However, there are localities in the relatively new Chicamocha National Park (T. Donegan in litt. 2008). Fundacion Conserva is working to establish community based conservation reserves along the Chicamocha canyon. The presence of the species at Soata triggers the site as an IBA. Conservation Actions Proposed
Determine its status in the Serranía de San Lucas, at politically safe historical sites and in protected areas. Research its natural history and habitat preferences, in particular its dependence on Trichanthera gigantea (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999; J. O. Cortes in litt. 2009). Prepare action plans for conservation of habitat within its range (L. Dávalos in litt. 1999). Protect areas of suitable habitat found to hold the species (L. Dávalos in litt. 1999; T. Züchner in litt. 1999). Raise awareness of conservation issues through educational campaigns (L. Dávalos in litt. 1999). Reforest areas, introducing yatago (Trichanthera) flowers (J. O. Cortes in litt. 2009). Identify migration routes and areas and assign them protectoin (Parra et al. 2010).
Chavez-Portilla, G. A.; Cortes-Herrera., J. O. 2006. Nueva localidad para la Quincha de Soatá (Amazilia castaneiventris) en el municipio de San Gil, Santander, Colombia. Boletín SAO XVI(1): 1-6.
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Cortes-Herrera-Jaramillo, O.; Hernandez, A.; Briseño-Buitrago E. 2004. Redescubrimiento del colibrí Amazilia castaneiventris, una especie endémica y amenazada de Colombia. Ornitología Colombiana 2: 47-49.
Cortes-Herrera, J. O. 2006. Natural history of Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird.
Donegan, T.; Salaman, P. 1999. Colombian EBA Project '99: rapid biodiversity assessments and conservation evaluations in the Colombian Andes.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
López-Lanús, B. 2002. Notes on Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird Amazilia castaneiventris: a new record for Boyacá, Colombia. Cotinga 17: 51-52.
Parra, J.; Davila N.; Beltran, L. M.; Delgadillo, A.; Valderrama, S.; Cortes, O. . 2006. Project Chicamocha: The conservation of two critically endangered dry forest birds: Niceforo’s Wren and Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird. Conservation Leadership Programme Report.
Parra, J. E.; L. M. Beltrán; A. Delgadillo; S. Valderrama. 2010. Project Chicamocha II: Saving threathened dry forest biodiversity. Conservation Leadership Programme.
Peñuela, G.; Archila, L. 2010. Aspectos del comportamiento del colibrí ventricastaño, Amazilia castaneiventris (aves: Trochilidae), en la Reserva Natural de aves Cucarachero del Chicamocha. Zapatoca, Santander- Colombia. Tesis para optar a titulo de profesional en Biología, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Amazilia castaneiventris. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2013.|
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