Hylobates muelleri 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hylobatidae

Scientific Name: Hylobates muelleri Martin, 1841
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Müller's Bornean Gibbon, Bornean Gibbon, Bornean Grey Gibbon, Borneo Gibbon, Grey Gibbon, Müller's Gibbon
French Gibbon De Muller
Spanish Gibón De Mueller
Taxonomic Notes: This species hybridizes with H. albibarbis in a wide area of central Borneo (Marshall and Sugardjito 1986, Mather 1992). In addition, there are wide inter-grade zones between the three subspecies (Marshall and Sugardjito 1986).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Geissmann, T. & Nijman, V.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
The species is considered Endangered based on an estimated population reduction of over 50% over the past 45 years (3 generations) due to rampant habitat loss and over-utilization. Where the species persists there is hunting and collection for the wildlife trade and for human consumption.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species as a whole occurs throughout Borneo except for the southwest (where H. albibarbis is found), from the north bank of the Kapuas River clockwise around the island to the east bank of the Barito River (Groves 2001).

Hylobates muelleri muelleri
This taxon is found in southeast Kalimantan, Indonesia, approximately south of the Mahakam River and west of the Barito River (Groves 2001).

Hylobates muelleri funereus
This taxon is found in Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan) and Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). It ranges from the northeast of Borneo (Sabah) south to the Mahakam River and perhaps west to the Baram District and the IV Division of Sarawak (Groves 2001).

Hylobates muelleri abbotti
This taxon is found in Indonesia (Kalimantan) and Malaysia (Sarawak). It occurs north of the Kapuas River and east as far east as the Saribas District of Sarawak (Groves 2001).
Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Kalimantan); Malaysia (Sabah)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is generally common in areas where good forest remains (J. Hon pers. comm.). Densities estimated using various techniques at three Indonesian sites ranged from 9-14.6 individuals/km2 at Kutai National Park, to 6.9-9.9 at Kayang Mentarang National Park, and 7.9-9.5 at Sungai Wain Protection Forest (Nijman and Menken 2005). Out of 11 studies on the effects of logging, 6 reported decline and 3 were neutral (Meijaard et al. 2005). Meijaard and Nijman (unpubl. data) conservatively estimate the total population to be approximately 250,000-375,000 individuals.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species is found in tropical evergreen forests of primary, selectively logged and secondary forest types. Mueller's gibbons are arboreal and diurnal, and frugviorous (preferring fruits high in sugar), but will also eat immature leaves and insects (Leighton 1987; Rodman 1978). They have been recorded from forests up to 1,500 m (Leighton 1987) or 1,700 m in Sabah (Yasuma and Andau 2000), with densities decreasing at higher elevations (V. Nijman pers. comm.). In Kutai National Park, average home range size was 36 ha (Leighton 1987).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Deforestation and trade in illegal pets are the predominant threats, and in interior areas hunting is also a threat (Mejiaard et al. 2005; Nijman 2005). From 2003-2004, Nijman (2005) recorded 54 individuals in markets in Kalimantan. Much habitat is being lost due to expanding oil palm plantations and logging.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix I. It occurs in a number of protected areas across its range, including Betung-Kerihun National Park, Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park, Kayan Mentarang National Park, Kutai National Park, Sungai Wain Protection Forest, Tanjung Puting National Park (Indonesia); Lanjak-Entimau Sanctuary, Semengok Forest Reserve (Malaysia) (Richardson pers. comm.).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.1. Small-holder plantations
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

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Citation: Geissmann, T. & Nijman, V. 2008. Hylobates muelleri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T10551A3200262. . Downloaded on 20 October 2017.
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