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Trochalopteron jerdoni 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Leiotrichidae

Scientific Name: Trochalopteron jerdoni (Blyth, 1851)
Common Name(s):
English Banasura Laughingthrush
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Praveen, J. & Rahmani, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Calvert, R., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J., Allinson, T & Westrip, J.
Justification:
This laughingthrush has a very small and severely fragmented range which is declining rapidly as a result of the conversion of forest habitats to plantations, agriculture and settlements. It therefore qualifies as Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Trochalopteron jerdoni is endemic to southern India. It is restricted to high elevations in the districts of Wayanad (Kerala) and Coorg (Karnataka). It is found in several localities, but is severely fragmented and has likely gone extinct at a few locations (Praveen J. and Nameer 2012). The largest sub-population is found at Vellarimala-Chembra and this likely numbers >250 mature individuals (Praveen J. in litt. 2016).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
India
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:1300
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):1200
Upper elevation limit (metres):2285
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to fall in the range of 250-2,500 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. Each subpopulation likely has >250 mature individuals based on the same assumptions and so the species's population size is placed in the range of 500-2,500 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  Populations are suspected to be in slow decline owing to the degradation and loss of habitat across the species's range, although recent quantitative data on its population status are lacking. The overall rate of decline is expected to be slow in the next ten years.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:500-2500Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
No. of subpopulations:2-5Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Like the closely related T. cachinnans it is thought to be a sedentary resident, inhabiting dense undergrowth and moist, shady lower storey vegetation of evergreen and semi-evergreen forest, especially densely wooded ravines and hollows ("sholas") and forest edge, always above 1,200 m, but generally higher than 1,600 m. It may also occurs in gardens, patches of natural scrub, and hill guava trees Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, and is absent or uncommon in Eucalyptus, tea and Acacia plantations. Population densities are high in intact forest, but are roughly halved in disturbed forest (del Hoyo et al. 2007).

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4.9
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Large-scale conversion of forest into plantations, reservoirs, crops and human settlements are the main threats. Commercial plantations of tea, Eucalyptus and Acacia have been increasing in area. Between 1961 and 1988, 47% of evergreen/semi-evergreen forest was lost in the Kerala portion of the Western Ghats, whilst there were increases in plantation and deciduous forest cover of 6% and 7.5% respectively (del Hoyo et al. 2007). The indiscriminate use of inorganic pesticides may also be a problem (Zarri 2005). Having a montane distribution that is close to the maximum altitude within its range, this species is potentially susceptible to climate change (BirdLife International unpublished data).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions UnderwayNo new protected areas have been formed despite some efforts to get them notified (Praveen J. in litt. 2016). A major part of its range falls under reserve forests but ecotourism activities are still a bane for all these sky islands due to relentless trekking (Praveen J. in litt. 2016)

Conservation Actions Proposed
Regularly monitor populations at selected sites and develop a database of information for formulating conservation management strategies for different areas. Promote community-based conservation initiatives focusing on restoration of natural habitats, including protection of undergrowth and shrubs in existing old plantations. Initiate conservation awareness programmes.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.7. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability:Marginal season:non-breeding 
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.10. Large dams
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.3. Herbicides and pesticides
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2007. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 12: Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Praveen J. and Nameer, P.O. 2012. Strophocincla Laughingthrushes of South India: a case for allopatric speciation and impact on their conservation. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 109: 46-52.

Zarri, A. A. 2005. Ecology of Nilgiri Laughingthrush (Garrulax cachinnans) in Nilgiris, Western Ghats. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Mumbai.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Trochalopteron jerdoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T103874145A104204340. . Downloaded on 23 May 2018.
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