|Scientific Name:||Carduelis carduelis (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Derhé, M.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Carduelis carduelis is widely distributed across Europe and central Asia, from the British Isles, western Europe and the northern tip of Africa through eastern Europe, the Balkans, Turkey and into the Urals, Israel, Azerbaijan and Iran.|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kuwait; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, European Russia); Saudi Arabia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Canary Is.); Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom
Introduced:Argentina; Australia; Bermuda; Brazil; Cape Verde; New Zealand; Uruguay
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 27,800,000-42,700,000 pairs, which equates to 55,700,000-85,500,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.55% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 101,000,000-155,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 have undergone a moderate increase (EBCC 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits open or sparse deciduous woodland and mixed deciduous and conifer woods, forest edges, thickets, heaths, hedgerows, streams, riverine and marshy areas with bushes and trees, roadside verges, steppe grasslands with scattered trees to edges of semi-desert areas, scrub, orchards, edges of cultivation and parks and gardens. Breeding occurs from April to early August. The nest is a compact small cup of grasses, moss, plant fibres and down, cobwebs, animal hair and feathers, a few aromatic flowers on outside, placed up to 10 m from the ground, concealed beneath foliage. Clutches are four to six eggs. It feeds mostly on seeds (ripe and unripe), buds, flowers and the fruits of plants but also takes arthropods. The species is resident, migratory, partially migratory and nomadic (Clement 2016).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4.2|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The species is caught over most of its range and is popular as a cage bird (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. The decline of commercial bird catching may have been responsible for population increases in Britain, Ireland and Belgium since 1950 (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).
Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently needed for this species.
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Clement, P. 2016. European Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
EBCC. 2015. Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. Available at: http://www.ebcc.info/index.php?ID=587.
Hagemeijer, E.J.M. and Blair, M.J. 1997. The EBCC atlas of European breeding birds: their distribution and abundance. T. and A. D. Poyser, London.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Jenni, L. and Kery, M. 2003. Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 270(1523): 1467-1471.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Carduelis carduelis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T103764950A88459372.Downloaded on 15 August 2018.|
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