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Lanius excubitor 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Laniidae

Scientific Name: Lanius excubitor Linnaeus, 1758
Common Name(s):
English Great Grey Shrike
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Lanius excubitor, L. borealis and L. meridionalis (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as L. excubitor following AOU (1998 and supplements), Cramp et al. (1977-1994), Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993) and Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Shutes, S., Derhé, M., Wheatley, H.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be decreasing, however the species is not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Chad; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mali; Mauritania; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Nepal; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Sudan; Spain; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Western Sahara; Yemen
Vagrant:
Brunei Darussalam; Cyprus; Equatorial Guinea; Faroe Islands; Gambia; Ghana; Iceland; Ireland; Malta
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:52300000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):2800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population size has not been quantified. In Europe, the breeding population has estimated to number c.69,000-176,000 pairs (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend Justification:  Data suggest that the species is decreasing in Asia (Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2016). Following the taxonomic change, in Europe and the EU27 the population size is estimated to be roughly stable over 12 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). Therefore, the species is tentatively assessed as declining, although this is thought to be only a very slow decline, pending further information.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species breeds in subarctic and temperate climates in open country with trees, bushes, fence posts and powerlines. Northern populations also use clearings in taiga or in the transition zone from taiga to tundra and forest edge. It is sometimes found on marshland and peat bogs. Sparse and low vegetation is an important habitat characteristic for this species (Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2016). The beginning of egg-laying varies with latitude (Lefranc and Worfolk 1997) but is generally from March to early July in Europe, April-May in Alaska and May-July in eastern Canada (Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2016). The nest is built by both sexes and is a well-made structure with a loose foundation of twigs, grass, rootlets, string, lined with rootlets, feathers and hair. It is generally placed high above ground in a fork or on a lateral branch of a tree, often pine (Pinus) or poplar (Populus) or sometimes in dense shrub. Clutch usually 3-9 eggs. It feeds principally on small vertebrates such as small rodents, particularly voles, but also small birds, lizards, amphibians and large insects (Lefranc and Worfolk 1997). Most populations are migratory or at least partially so, the non-breeding range includes southern parts of the breeding range in addition to more southern areas (Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2016).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Europe habitat for this species has been destroyed and degraded by agricultural intensification. The removal of hedges and trees has reduced the number of available hunting perches and nest sites and reduced food availability. Wide scale use of herbicides and pesticides has also reduced the prey availability. However the cessation of agricultural activity can also have negative impacts, such as the removal of sheep-grazing may lead to the invasion of scrub, resulting in unsuitable habitat for the species. Destruction of peatbogs with scattered pines is thought to explain declines around Moscow. It may also be adversely affected by bad weather and harsh winters. It is also threatened by the development of industry and road building and disturbance from humans, cars and dogs can increase predation by corvids (Tucker and Heath 1994).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. The species is protected in most European countries and is frequently listed on national red lists; in some listed as 'highly endangered' and in more countries as 'vulnerable' or 'endangered' (Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2016). A national species action plan has been published in Luxembourg (Biver et al. 2009).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Reducing intensive agricultural management would probably be the most effective conservation measure for this species (Yosef and International Shrike Working Group 2016). Broad habitat conservation measures are required including, the maintenance of low-intensity farming practices, a reduction in the use of agro-chemicals, protection of areas of moorland, heathland, fallow lands and peatbogs, prevention of afforestation of fallow lands or low-quality pastures, restoration of standard orchards and the limiting of access to certain areas to minimise disturbance at nests (Tucker and Heath 1994).

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Map edited: Enlarged the blue area in S France; redrew C Asia and N China. EOO updated. Removed a country from countries of occurrence. Edited Population Justification and Population Trend Justification; and changed the trend derivation to suspected. Also altered the population size fields and added a reference.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:Yes
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No
8. Desert -> 8.1. Desert - Hot
suitability:Suitable season:breeding major importance:No
8. Desert -> 8.1. Desert - Hot
suitability:Suitable season:non-breeding major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No

Bibliography [top]

AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Biver, G., Lorgé, P., Schoos, F., Grof, M. and Sowa, F. 2009. Plan d’action: Pie-grièche grise Lanius excubitor. Plan national pour la protection de la nature (PNPN 2007-2011). In: Le Governement du Grand Duche de Luxembourg (ed.).

Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Dowsett, R.J. and Forbes-Watson, A.D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Liège, Belgium.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 December 2017).

Lefranc, N.; Worfolk, T. 1997. Shrikes: a guide to the shrikes of the world. Pica Press, Mountfield, U.K.

Sibley, C.G. and Monroe, B.L. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Sibley, C.G. and Monroe, B.L. 1993. A supplement to 'Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World'. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Tucker, G.M. and Heath, M.F. 1994. Birds in Europe: their conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Yosef, R. and International Shrike Working Group. 2016. Great Grey Shrike (Lanius excubitor). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Lanius excubitor (amended version of 2017 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T103718932A118776098. . Downloaded on 23 September 2018.
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