Hyemoschus aquaticus 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Tragulidae

Scientific Name: Hyemoschus aquaticus
Species Authority: (Ogilby, 1841)
Common Name(s):
English Water Chevrotain
French Chevrotain Aquatique
Spanish Antilope Amizclero Enano de Agua
Synonym(s):
Moschus aquaticus Ogilby, 1841
Taxonomic Notes: No subspecies have been recognised.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-01-07
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M. & Mallon, D.
Justification:
The total population is estimated at some 280,000 animals. Although declining due to bushmeat hunting and habitat loss, it is not considered to be close to meeting any threshold for threatened status and it is confirmed Least Concern. However, if present trends continue, then the Water Chevrotain’s status is likely to decline further within the next few decades and a reassessment may be warranted.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Has a disjunct range in West and Central Africa. It occurs in the Upper Guinea Forest from Sierra Leone and south-eastern Guinea, through Liberia and southern Côte d’Ivoire into south-west Ghana, there are recent camera-trap records of the species from south-eastern Guinea-Bissau in the Boé, extending the known distribution some way to the north-west (Hart 2013). It is also distributed through the Congo Basin forest of Central Africa from the Niger River through southern Cameroon, Gabon, Cabinda (Angola), Congo and DR Congo to extreme western Uganda, where it is now believed extirpated (East 1999, Hart 2013). A record from Angola's Lunda Norte Province, near the Cassai River, is the southernmost record Crawford-Cabral and Veríssimo 2005). Within this range, occupancy is restricted to the vicinity of rivers and streams (Hart 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Ghana; Guinea; Liberia; Nigeria; Sierra Leone; Togo
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In the Ituri Forest, densities of 1.5-5.0/km²have been recorded (Hart 2013). Higher densities (28/km²) have been reported in Gabon (Dubost 1978). East (1999) estimated the total population size at around 278,000 animals, with populations generally in decline.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Chevrotains are confined to closed-canopy, moist tropical lowland forest, and within this habitat, they only occupy areas in the vicinity of streams and rivers. However, the Water Chevrotain is not a swamp specialist, and often ranges in mature upland forest areas (Hart 2013).
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):5.5

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is found in bushmeat market.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to this species are habitat loss and bushmeat hunting. In the central Ituri Forest, chevrotains are regularly caught by the Mbuti net hunters, and consistently represent about 5% of total catch, even in areas that have been hunted for years (Hart 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Water Chevrotains occur in several protected areas, including: Sapo N.P. and Grebo National Forest (Liberia), Tai N. P. (Côte d’Ivoire), Lobeke N. P. (Cameroon), Lope N.P. and Minkebe N.P. (Gabon), Maiko N.P. Kahuzi-Biega N.P. and Okapi Faunal Reserve (DR Congo) and Odzala and Nouabale-Ndoki NPs (Congo) (East 1999).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

Crawford-Cabral, J. and Verissimo, L. N. 2005. The Ungulate Fauna of Angola. Instituto de Investifacao Cientifica Tropical, Lisboa.

Dubost, G. 1978. Un aperçu sur l’écologie du Chevrotain africain, Hyemoschus aquaticus Ogilby, Artiodactyle Tragulidé. Mammalia 42: 1-62.

East, R. (Compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Hart, J.A. 2013. Hyemoschus aquaticus Water Chevrotain. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume VI: Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer and Bovids, Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Hyemoschus aquaticus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T10341A50188841. . Downloaded on 27 August 2016.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided