|Scientific Name:||Parahyaena brunnea|
|Species Authority:||(Thunberg, 1820)|
Hyaena brunnea Thunberg, 1820
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Koepfli, K., Jenks, S.M., Eizirik, E., Zahirpour, T., Van Valkenburgh, B. and Wayne, R.K. 2006. Molecular systematics of the Hyaenidae: Relationships of a relictual lineage resolved by a molecular supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38(3): 603–620.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Although previously placed in the same genus as the Striped Hyaena (genus Hyaena, e.g. Jenks and Werdelin 1998), Koepfli et al. (2006) place this species in its own genus Parahyaena (also see Wozencraft 1993). The sister taxon is the Striped Hyaena, Hyaena hyaena with which it last shared a common ancestor roughly 4.2 mya (Koepfli et al. 2006). The clade containing Brown and Striped Hyaenas last shared a common ancestor with the Spotted Hyaena roughly 8.6 mya (Koepfli et al. 2006).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Dloniak, S.M.D. & Holekamp, E.|
|Contributor(s):||Barker, N., Boast, L., Child, M.F., Clegg, B., Collison, W., Davis, R., Edwards, C., Flyman, M., Groom, R., Hanssen, L., Kelly, D., Kent, V., Maude, G., McNutt, T., Mills, M.G.L., Pegg, N., Scott, D., Stratford, K., Trethowan, P., Weise, F., Welch, R., Williams, K., Winterbach, C., Yarnell, R. & van der Meer, E.|
This species is listed as Near Threatened as the mean global population size is estimated to be below 10,000 mature individuals, and it experiences a measure of deliberate and incidental persecution such that it may come close to meeting a continuing decline of 10% over the next three generations (24 years). It almost qualifies as threatened under criterion C1.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to southern Africa with a marginal extension into the arid parts of southwestern Angola, southeastern Botswana, and the northern and western Cape regions of the Republic of South Africa. Almost 90% of the Brown Hyena population in Botswana occurs in the Southern Conservation Zone (Winterbach et al. 2014). The range of the Brown Hyaena has shrunk significantly since the end of the 18th century when it was last recorded from Table Bay in the extreme southwest of the continent (Hofer and Mills 1998a, Mills 1990). They remain widespread in southern Africa, and in recent years in South Africa have been recorded from the extreme south in the Western Cape (Gansbaai and Bredasdorp), possibly vagrants from a small population in the Little Karoo (Yarnell et al. 2013). Thorn et al. (2011a) found that Brown Hyena distribution in northern South Africa was larger than in previous estimates. However, in farm land in this same area, Brown Hyaena occupancy was estimated at 0.748 (±SE 0.1), and estimated overall density in agricultural land (0.15/100 km2, ±SE 0.08), which was an order of magnitude lower than in protected areas (Thorn et al. 2011b). Boast and Houser (2012) also found that Brown Hyena distribution in Ghanzi, Botswana was larger than previously believed. Several re-introductions have taken place in South Africa's Eastern Cape (e.g., Shamwari Game Reserve; Slater and Muller 2014), and sightings have since been recorded there (e.g., Hayward et al. 2007). Other range expansions have also been recorded from South Africa (Thorn et al. 2011a). Recent studies from Zimbabwe show a range expansion into the north/northwest region of the country (E. van der Meer pers. comm. 2014) and into the east (R. Groom pers. comm. 2014). They seem to be absent from southeast Namibia (I. Wiesel pers. comm. 2014) and the Zambezi region (former Caprivi Strip; L. Hanssen pers. comm. 2014). No recent records are available from the central and western parts of South Africa's Northern Cape Province. Records from Malawi are erroneous (see discussion in Ansell and Dowsett 1988).|
Native:Angola (Angola); Botswana; Namibia; South Africa; Zimbabwe
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total population size on the continent has been estimated as at a minimum of 5,000 to 8,000 individuals, with Botswana having the largest population (an estimated 3,900 animals; ,Hofer and Mills 1998b). However, numbers for Botswana may be higher, as one density study for the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and Makgadikgadi Pans estimates the park's Brown Hyaena population at 2,253 animals (G. Maude pers. comm.). Winterbach and Winterbach (2014) estimate Botswana's total population in 2014 between 2,799 and 5,271 animals. A recent national population estimate for Namibia puts the number of Brown Hyaenas at 566-2,440 animals (Stein et al. 2013). Thorn (2008, unpublished PhD thesis) estimates South Africa's population at 1,007 (31-2,316) animals. No recent population size estimates are available for Zimbabwe, Angola, Mozambique, Lesotho or Swaziland. Mean density of Brown Hyaenas on farmlands in Botswana was 2.3 per 100 km2 based on camera trap data, and 2.88 per 100 km2 based on spoor surveys (Kent and Hill 2013). Thorn et al. (2009) estimated population density in Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa, at 2.8 per 100 km2. |
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The Brown Hyaena is found in dry areas, generally with annual rainfall less than 100 mm, particularly along the coast, semi-desert, open scrub and open woodland savanna with a maximum rainfall up to about 700 mm. It shows an ability to survive close to urban areas. It is predominantly nocturnal in its activity (Hulsman et al. 2010). The Brown Hyaena is independent of drinking water, but needs some type of cover in which to lie up during the day. For this it favours rocky, mountainous areas with bush cover in the bushveld areas of South Africa (Skinner 1976). It is primarily a scavenger of a wide range of vertebrate remains, which is supplemented by wild fruit and other plant material, insects, birds’ eggs, and the occasional small animal which is killed; their impact on domestic livestock is usually very small (Mills 1998, 1990; Maude and Mills 2005; Schiess-Meier et al. 2007). On Namibian farmlands, Brown Hyaenas often scavenge from leopard kills (Stein et al. 2013). Along the Namib Desert Coast, Brown Hyaenas are successful hunters of Cape Fur Seal pups (e.g. Wiesel 2006, Wiesel 2010). Populations of Brown Hyaenas in non-protected areas comprise a significant proportion of the global population, suggesting that such areas are likely to be important for their sustained conservation (Kent and Hill 2013, Lindsey et al. 2013, Stein et al. 2013). Working in areas occupied by pastoralist herders, Maude and Mills (2005) found, that, although Brown Hyaenas feed on carcasses of livestock, there was no evidence to suggest that Brown Hyaenas hunted livestock, or any other significantly sized mammals. Thus the persecution of them because of perceived livestock predation is unjustified. The dietary benefit derived by the Brown Hyaenas from the presence of subsistence pastoralists and their livestock carcasses, may be the primary reason that Brown Hyaena populations are viable in cattle areas (Maude and Mills 2005).|
|Generation Length (years):||8.5|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||The bones and other parts of Brown Hyaenas are used for traditional medicinal and ritual purposes. Animals are also hunted by trophy hunters.|
|Major Threat(s):||Outside protected areas, the Brown Hyaena may come into conflict with humans, and they are often shot, poisoned, trapped and hunted with dogs in predator eradication or control programmes, or inadvertently killed in non-selective control programs (Mills 1998). Brown Hyaena body parts are used in traditional medicine and Brown Hyaenas are also often unintentional victims of lethal problem animal control through poisons and poaching through snares (I. Wiesel, C. Edwards, L. Boast and R. Yarnell pers. comms. 2014). Lethal control remains the most predominant form of conflict resolution. The Brown Hyaena is regarded as a threat to livestock in some areas, and over 72% of livestock owners in Namibia believe that the Brown Hyaena is responsible for losses (Lindsey et al. 2013), despite the finding that Brown Hyaenas very seldom prey on livestock (Maude and Mills 2005). In South Africa's North West Province 40% of livestock owners regard the Brown Hyaena as a problem animal (Thorn 2008), but in the North West Province, only 6% of surveyed farmers admit to having killed Brown Hyaenas on their property (St John et al. 2011). Persecution in small stock areas in Namibia has lead to the local extinction of Brown Hyaenas in the southeastern parts of that country, where increasing conflict may lead to further population decline.|
|Conservation Actions:||Brown Hyaenas occur in a number of large conservation areas, including: Namib-Naukluft, Skeleton Coast, Tsau//Khaeb (Sperrgebiet) and Etosha National Parks (Namibia), Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (South Africa, Botswana), Makgadikgadi National Park (Botswana), Pilanesberg National Park (South Africa), Shamwari Game Reserve (Eastern Cape, South Africa), and the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (Botswana). A recent study from Botswana suggested that a significant proportion of the global Brown Hyaena population is found in non-protected areas, and that these animals can also tolerate land-use changes under some circumstances (Kent and Hill 2013). Boast and Houser (2012) found that Brown Hyaenas occurred evenly on game and cattle farms in Botswana, and in Namibia 54.5% of farm owners reported Brown Hyaena presence (Lindsey et al. 2013). Increased efforts to educate farmers and pastoralists about the fact that Brown Hyenas pose very little risk to livestock is likely to enhance conservation of these animals.|
Ansell, W.F.H. and Dowsett, R.J. 1988. Mammals of Malawi - an Annotated Checklist and Atlas. The Trendrine Press, Zennor, St Ives, Cornwall, UK.
Boast, L.K. and Houser, A. 2012. Density of large predators on commercial farmland in Ghanzi, Botswana. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 42(2): 138-143.
Hanssen, L. and Stander, P. 2004. Namibia Large Carnivore Atlas. Predator Conservation Trust, Namibia.
Hayward, M.W., Adendorff, J., O'Brien, J., Sholto-Douglas, A., Bissett, C., Moolman, L.C., Bean, P., Fogarty, A., Howarth, D., Slater, R. and Kerley, G.I.H. 2007. The reintroduction of large carnivores to the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: an assessment. . Oryx 41: 205-214.
Hofer, H. and Mills, M.G.L. 1998a. Worldwide distribution of Hyaenas. In: M.G.L. Mills and H. Hofer (eds), Hyaenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 39-63. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hofer, H. and Mills, M.G.L. 1998b. Population size, threats and conservation status of hyaenas. In: M.G.L. Mills and H. Hofer (eds), Hyaenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 64-79. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hulsman, A., Dalerum, F., Swanepoel, L., Ganswindt, A., Sutherland, C. and Paris, M. 2010. Patterns of scat deposition by brown hyaenas Hyaena brunnea in a mountain savannah region of South Africa. Wildlife Biology 16(4): 445-451.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Jenks, S. and Werdelin, L. 1998. Taxonomy and systematics of living hyaenas (family Hyaenidae). In: M.G.L. Mills and H. Hofer (eds), Hyaenas: status survey and conservation action plan, pp. 8-17. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Kent, V. 2011. The status and conservation potential of carnivores in semi-arid rangelands, Botswana The Ghanzi Farmlands: a case study. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Durham University. Available at Durham E-University Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/728/
Kent, V.T. and Hill, R.A. 2013. The importance of farmland for the conservation of the brown hyaena Parahyaena brunnea. Oryx 47(3): 431-440.
Koepfli, K., Jenks, S.M., Eizirik, E., Zahirpour, T., Van Valkenburgh, B. and Wayne, R.K. 2006. Molecular systematics of the Hyaenidae: Relationships of a relictual lineage resolved by a molecular supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38(3): 603–620.
Kuhn, B.F. 2014. A preliminary assessment of the carnivore community outside Johannesburg, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 44(1): 95-98.
Lindsey, P.A., Havemann, C.P., Lines, R., Palazy, L., Price, A.E., Retief, T. A., Rhebergen, T. and van der Waal, C. 2013. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands. PLoS ONE 8(1).
Maude, G. and Mills, M.G.L. 2005. The comparative feeding ecology of the brown hyaena in a cattle area and a national park in Botswana. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 35(2): 201-214.
Mills, M.G.L. 1990. Kalahari hyaenas: the comparative behavioural ecology of two species. Unwin Hyman, London.
Mills, M.G L. 1998. Brown hyaena Hyaena (Parahyaena) brunnea (Thunberg, 1820). In: M.G.L. Mills and H. Hofer (eds), Hyaenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 26- 29. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Mills, M.G.L. 2013. Hyaena brunnea. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume V: Carnivores, Pangolins, Equids and Rhinceroses, Bloomsbury Publishing, London.
Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.
Schiess-Meier, M., Ramsauer, S., Gabanapelo, T. and Koenig, B. 2007. Livestock Predation - Insights From Problem Animal Control Registers in Botswana. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(4): 1267-1274.
Skinner, J D. 1976. Ecology of the brown hyaena Hyaena brunnea in the Transvaal with a distribution map for Southern Africa. South African Journal of Science 72: 262-269.
Slater, K. and Muller, K. 2014. The diet of brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) in Shamwari Game Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Koedoe 56(1).
Stein, A.B., Fuller, T.K. and Marker, L.L. 2013. Brown hyaena feeding ecology on Namibian farmlands. South African Journal Of Wildlife Research 43(1): 27-32.
St John, F.A.V., Keane, A.M., Edwards-Jones, G., Jones , L., Yarnell, R.W. and Jones, J.P.G. 2011. Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B-Biological Sciences 279(1729): 804-812.
Thorn, M. 2008. Preliminary results from a questionnaire survey regarding predators in the commercial landscapes of the North West Province of South Africa. University of Brighton.
Thorn, M., Green, M., Bateman, P.W., Waite, S. and Scott, D.M. 2011b. Brown hyaenas on roads: estimating carnivore occupancy and abundance using spatially auto-correlated sign survey replicates. Biological Conservation 144: 1799-1807.
Thorn, M., Green, M., Dalerum, F., Bateman, P.W. and Scott, D.M. 2012. What drives human-carnivore conflict in the North West Province of South Africa? Biological Conservation 150: 23-32.
Thorn, M., Green, M., Keith, M., Marnewick, K., Bateman, P.W., Cameron, E.Z. and Scott, D.M. 2011a. Large-scale distribution patterns of carnivores in northern South Africa: implications for conservation and monitoring. Oryx 45(4): 579-586.
Thorn, M., Green, M., Marnewick, K. and Scott, D.M. 2014. Determinants of attitudes to carnivores: implications for mitigating human-carnivore conflict on South African farmland. Oryx: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605313000744.
Thorn, M., Scott. D.M., Green, M., Bateman, P.W. and Cameron, E.Z. 2009. Estimating brown hyaena occupancy using baited camera traps. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 39(1): 1-10.
Wiesel, I. 2006. Predatory and foraging behaviour of brown hyenas (Parahyaena brunnea (Thunberg, 1820)) at Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus Schreber, 1776) colonies. Doctoral Thesis, University of Hamburg.
Wiesel, I. 2010. Killing of Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) pups by brown hyenas (Parahyaena brunnea) at mainland breeding colonies along the coastal Namib Desert. Acta Ethologica 13: 93-100.
Winterbach, C.W. and Winterbach, H.E.K. 2014. 2014 summary of brown hyaena population estimates in Botswana. Unpublished report.
Winterbach, H.E.K., Winterbach, C.W. and Somers, M.J. 2014. Landscape suitability in Botswana for the conservation of its six large African carnivores. PLoS ONE 9(6).
Wozencraft, W.C. 1993. Order Carnivora. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second Edition, pp. 279-344. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Yarnell, R.W., Phipps, W.L., Burgess, L.P., Ellis, J.A., Harrison, S.W.R., Dell, S., MacTavish, D., MacTavish, L.M. and Scott, D.M. 2013. The influence of large predators on the feeding ecology of two African mesocarnivores: the black-backed jackal and the brown hyaena. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 43(2): 155-166.
|Citation:||Wiesel, I. 2015. Parahyaena brunnea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T10276A82344448.Downloaded on 17 August 2017.|