|Scientific Name:||Hyaena hyaena|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||AbiSaid, M. & Dloniak, S.M.D.|
|Contributor(s):||Ostrowski, S., Nawaz, M.A., Arumugam, R., Mills, M.G.L. & Wagner, A.P.|
Listed as Near Threatened as the global population size is estimated to be below 10,000 mature individuals, and experiences ongoing deliberate and incidental persecution coupled with a decrease in its prey base such that it may come close to meeting a continuing decline of 10% over the next three generations. It almost qualifies as threatened under criterion C1.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The Striped Hyaena has a very large, albeit now patchy distribution, extending from Africa, north of and including the Sahel, and including much of east and northeast Africa south to about central Tanzania, through the Middle East and Arabian Peninsula, Turkey, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, though not reaching Assam, Bhutan or Myanmar. They may have recently expanded into Nepal (Hofer and Mills 1998a). |
Although historically present, there are few reliable recent records of occurrence in Sudan, Eritrea, Somalia, Qatar, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates (Andrews 2008, Cunningham 2004, Hofer and Mills 1998a). However, recent records for Syria (Palmyra area and other Syrian governorates; Masseti 2009, A. Shehab pers. comm. 2014, G. Serra pers. comm. 2014) and Pakistan (Balochistan province, Ghalib et al. 2007) confirmed its occurrence. Kasparek et al. (2004) discuss the recent distribution of the species in Turkey. In Lebanon (Abi-Said and Marrouche Abi-Said 2007) and Jordan (Qarqaz et al. 2004) Striped Hyaenas remain widely distributed across both countries.
Native:Afghanistan; Algeria; Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Chad; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Georgia; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Lebanon; Libya; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Uzbekistan; Western Sahara; Yemen
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Hofer and Mills (1998b) estimated the total population of striped hyaena at 5,000 to 14,000 individuals (see Table 5.2 in Hofer and Mills 1998b). Such an assessment of the current population trends of the Striped Hyaena is complicated by a number of problems (they are nocturnal, solitary, occur at low densities often in rugged country, sightings are infrequent, and surveys difficult to carry out). Moreover, in areas where the range of the Striped Hyaena overlaps with that of the Spotted Hyaena and the Aardwolf, few people acknowledge or recognize a difference between the three hyaenid species. Nonetheless, even if the overall population is larger than this estimate, based on their questionnaire survey, Hofer and Mills (1998b) found that the Striped Hyaena is already extinct in many localities and that populations are generally declining throughout its range.|
As noted, Striped Hyaenas occur at low population densities. A large study in Laikipia District, central Kenya, estimated the minimum regional density at 0.03 adults/km² (Wagner 2006), while van Aarde et al. (1998) estimated more than 0.016/km² in the Negev Desert (see also Table 5.1 in Hofer and Mills 1998b). Close estimates of 0.011/km² were found in Lebanon (Abi-Said 2006).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||In most of its range the Striped Hyaena occurs in open habitat or light thorn bush country in arid to semi-arid environments (Hofer 1998, Alam et al. 2014, Wagner 2013). These animals avoid open desert (such as the centre of the Arabian desert and the Sahara, though they may occur at low density in the central Saharan massifs), dense thickets and forests. Nevertheless, it was reported from Lebanon and Jordan that they inhabit thick Mediterranean oak forests (Abi-Said 2006, Qarqaz et al. 2004), and also avoid high altitudes; however, it has been recorded to 3,300 m in Pakistan (Roberts 1977), 2,700 m in the Moroccan High Atlas (Cuzin 2003), at least to 2,300 m in the Ethiopian Highlands (Yalden et al. 1996), and 2,200 m in the Lebanese mountains (Abi-Said and Marrouche Abi-Said 2007). Striped Hyaenas are sometimes found close to dense human settlements (e.g., Israel, Lebanon and Algeria). Individuals have been recorded 19 km south of Tel Aviv, 5 km east of the international airport and on the Tel Aviv-Haifa highway near Mount Carmel (Hofer 1998 and references therein), the highest density in Lebanon was recorded in an urban area 10 km north of Beirut (Abi-Said and Marrouche Abi-Said 2007), and in the suburbs of Algiers (K. de Smet pers. comm. 2007). Striped Hyaenas are unafraid of humans and frequently forage on garbage and carrion near to human habitation (Alam et al. 2014, Tourani et al. 2012, Abi-Said 2006, K. de Smet, F. Cuzin and M. Masseti pers. comm. 2014). Young animals are even kept as pets in some areas.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||6|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||The skins of this species are illegally traded and body parts are used in traditional medicine. The species is commercially hunted in Morocco for use in traditional medicine, with various parts being used (especially the brain) and may fetch very high prices.|
|Major Threat(s):||The major reasons for the apparent decline include persecution (especially poisoning), decreasing natural and domestic sources of carrion due to declines in the populations of other large carnivores (Wolf, Cheetah, Leopard, Lion, Tiger) and their prey, and changes in livestock practices (Hofer 1998). Humans are consistently indicated as the major source of mortality throughout the evaluated range, largely because the hyaena is loathed as a grave robber, is associated with several superstitions (e.g. in the Middle East), and because of incidents of damage to agriculture (e.g. in Israel) and livestock (Abi-Said 2006, Bunaian et al. 2001, Hofer 1998, Al Younis 1993, Wagner 2013). Striped Hyaenas are very susceptible to accidental or targeted poisoning as they readily accept strychnine-poisoned bait. For example, along the Mediterranean coast in Israel, the Striped Hyaena was exterminated by strychnine poisoning during the rabies eradication campaign administered by the British government between 1918 and 1948. The Striped Hyaenas ate poisoned donkey carcasses that were provided to control Golden Jackals, then the main carrier of rabies. Further large-scale poisoning occurred between 1950 and 1970 (Hofer 1998). In Jordan, Lebanon, and the Palmyra area in Syria, the species is heavily persecuted (including destruction or blockage of dens, poisoning carcasses, or the use of the fire to chase animals out of dens) (Abi-Said 2006, Qarqaz et al. 2004). There is also illegal trade in skins, and body parts for use in traditional medicine (as there is elsewhere in the range), and they are often kept in cages for display purposes (G. Serra pers. comm. 2014). The species is commercially hunted in Morocco for use in traditional medicine, with various parts being used (especially the brain) and may fetch very high prices. Hunters may travel hundreds of kilometres to capture this species (F. Cuzin pers. comm. 2007).|
|Conservation Actions:||Striped Hyaenas are present in numerous protected areas across their vast range. Because they exist outside of formally protected areas in regions where pastoralism is the norm and the potential for human-carnivore conflict is very high (for example, in Egypt and Kenya), particular attention should be paid to identifying ways to reduce human-carnivore conflict through promotion of methods that ensure adequate numbers of prey persist and/or methods that reduce livestock killing by all carnivores (Wagner 2013). Good domestic waste management (Yom-Tov 2003, Qarqaz et al. 2004, Abi-Said and Marrouche Abi-Said 2007, Tourani et al. 2012) and a well-designed public awareness program proved to be very successful in changing attitudes to promote conservation in some areas (Abi-Said 2006).|
Abi-Said, M.R. 2006. Reviled as a grave-robber: the ecology and conservation of Striped Hyaenas in the human-dominated landscapes of Lebanon. Department of Anthropology, Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE), University of Kent at Caterbury.
Abi-Said, M.R. and Marrouche Abi-Said, D. 2007. Distribution of the striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena syriaca Matius, 1882) (Carnivora: Hyaenidae) in urban and rural areas of Lebanon. Zoology of the Middle East 42(1): 3-14.
Alam, Md.S., Khan, J.A., Kushwaha, S.P.S., Agrawal, R., Pathak, B.J. and Kumar, S. 2014. Assessment of suitable habitat of near threatened striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena Linnaeus, 1758) using remote sensing and geographic information system. Asian Journal of Geoinformatics 14(2): 1-10.
Al Younis., J.S. 1993. Hyaenas in Eastern Jordan. IUCN Hyaena Specialist Group Newsletter.
Bunaian, F., Hatough, A., Ababneh, D., Mashaqbeh, S., Yousef, M. and Amr, Z. 2001. The carnivores of the Northeastern Badia, Jordan. Turkish Journal of Zoology 25: 19-25.
Cunningham, P.L. 2004. Checklist and status of the terrestrial mammals from the United Arab Emirates. Zoology of the Middle East 33(1): 7-20.
Cuzin, F. 2003. Les grands mammifères du Maroc méridional (Haut Atlas, Anti Atlas et Sahara): Distribution, Ecologie et Conservation. Ph.D. Thesis, Laboratoire de Biogéographie et Ecologie des Vertèbrés, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Université Montpellier II.
Ghalib, S.A., Jabbar, A., Razzaqkhan, A. and Zehar, A. 2007. Current status of the mammals in Balochistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 39(2): 117-122.
Hofer, H. 1998. Striped Hyaena Hyaena (Hyaena) hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758). In: G. Mills and H. Hofer (eds), Hyaenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 21-26. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hofer, H. and Mills, M.G.L. 1998a. Worldwide distribution of Hyaenas. In: M.G.L. Mills and H. Hofer (eds), Hyaenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 39-63. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hofer, H. and Mills, M.G.L. 1998b. Population size, threats and conservation status of hyaenas. In: M.G.L. Mills and H. Hofer (eds), Hyaenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 64-79. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 23 June 2015).
Kasparek, M., Kasparek, A., Gözcelioğlu, B., Çolak, E. and Yiğit, N. 2004. On the status and distribution of Striped Hyaena, Hyaena hyaena in Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East 33: 93-108.
Masseti, M. 2004. Artiodactyls of Syria. Zoology in the Middle East 33: 139-148.
Masseti, M. 2009. Carnivores of Syria. ZooKeys 31: 329-252.
Qarqaz, M.A., Abu Baker, M.A. and Amr, Z.S. 2004. Status and ecology of the striped hyaena, Hyaena hyaena in Jordan. Zoology in the Middle East 33(1): 87-92.
Roberts, T.J. 1977. The Mammals of Pakistan. Ernest Benn, London, UK.
Tourani, M., Moqanaki, E.M. and Kiabii, B.H. 2012. Vulnerability of striped hyaena, Hyaena hyaena, in a human-dominated landscape of Central Iran. Zoology of the Middle East 56(1): 133-136.
van Aarde, R. J., Skinner, J. D., Knight, M. H. and Skinner, D. C. 1988. Range use by a striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena) in the Negevdesert. Journal of Zoology (London) 216: 575-577.
Wagner, A. P. 2006. Behavioral ecology of the striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena). Ph.D. Thesis, Montana State University,.
Wagner, A.P. 2013. Hyaena hyaena. In: J.S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume 5: Carnivores, Pangolins, Equids, Rhinoceroses, pp. 560. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.
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Yom-Tov, Y. 2003. Body sizes of carnivores commensal with humans have increased over the past 50 years. Functional Ecology 17: 323-327.
|Citation:||AbiSaid, M. & Dloniak, S.M.D. 2015. Hyaena hyaena. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T10274A45195080.Downloaded on 27 August 2016.|
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