Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Craugastoridae

Scientific Name: Holoaden bradei
Species Authority: Lutz, 1958
Common Name(s):
English Itatiaia Highland Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Carlos Frederico da Rocha, Monique Van Sluys, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves da Cruz
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Critically Endangered because its Area of Occupancy is probably less than 10km2, all individuals are in a single sub-population, and the extent and quality of its habitat, and the number of mature individuals, on the Itatiaia Mountains in southern Brazil are declining.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is restricted to the highlands of the Itatiaia Mountains, in south-eastern Brazil. It occurs from 2,400-2,600m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species was found frequently up until the 1970s, but has not been found for more than 10 years even though there have been extensive searches of the area for many years. It was last collected in 1976.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs on the ground, under mulch and leaves, which is also where the eggs are laid. It hides under stones and in terrestrial bromeliads in open grassland, and probably breeds by direct development.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species has been heavily impacted by habitat degradation due to touristic activities and fire, and is also affected by extreme frosts.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The range of the species is within Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, and continued conservation and maintenance of its habitat is necessary. More exhaustive searches for this species are needed, in order to determine whether or not it still survives in the wild. If it is found, then further conservation measures, including a conservation management plan, will be needed.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.3. Temperature extremes
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan

Bibliography [top]

Bergallo, H.G., Rocha, C.F.D., Alves, M.A.S. and Van Sluys, M. 2000. A fauna ameaçada de Extinção do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Eduerj, Rio de Janeiro.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Lutz, B. 1958. Anfíbios novos e raros das serras costeiras do Brasil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz: 373-404.

Citation: Carlos Frederico da Rocha, Monique Van Sluys, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves da Cruz. 2004. Holoaden bradei. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T10215A3183473. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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