|Scientific Name:||Hirudo medicinalis|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Utevsky, S., Zagmajster, M. & Trontelj, P.|
Neither a reduction in population sizes nor a decline in the geographical ranges in comparison with previous records have been detected. On the other hand, the potential and actual loss of wetland habitats, the global decline of amphibians, abandonment of traditional grazing practices and the scarcity of mammalian blood in leech diet are likely to affect populations and geographical ranges. It seems very likely that such losses have already happened, but have remained unnoticed because of the lack of field research and/or taxonomic expertise. It is likely that ongoing deterioration in many wetland habitats and projected effects of climate change will result in a 20-30% decline in the area of good quality habitat. The associated projected population decline makes this species Near Threatened, and likely to move to a Vulnerable category over the next 10 years.
Hirudo medicinalis is distributed from Britain and southern Norway to the southern Urals and probably as far as the Altai Mountains, occupying the deciduous arboreal zone.
Native:Austria; Belarus; Croatia; Czech Republic; France; Germany; Hungary; Latvia; Lithuania; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Russian Federation; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Hirudo medicinalis has experienced recent rapid population growth and range expansion. The European medicinal leech has low genetic diversity, which is in agreement with their fast spreading. On the other hand, the potential and actual loss of wetland habitats, the global decline of amphibians, abandonment of traditional grazing practices and the scarcity of mammalian blood in leech diet are likely to affect populations and geographical ranges.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It occurs in ponds, waters that dry up periodically, floodplain pools and small lakes. Other ecological requirements include abundant hosts (frogs, cattle and horses), silty water bottoms, dense submerged and emergent vegetation and gently sloping banks favourable for laying cocoons.
|Use and Trade:||
The European medicinal leech can be used for bloodletting. However, related species are usually used for medical purposes and in life sciences as model organisms. The European medicinal leech is a classic laboratory object used for educational purposes.
|Major Threat(s):||The species can be threatened locally by collecting pressure. Threats also include loss of wetland habitats, the global decline of amphibians and abandonment of traditional grazing practices. Drained and agriculturally ameliorated stretches are devoid of European medicinal leeches.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is listed under Appendix III of the Bern Convention, Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and Annex V of the Habitats Directive.|
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 1990. 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).
Petrauskienė, L., Utevska, O., Utevsky, S. 2011. Reproductive biology and ecological strategies of three species of medicinal leeches (genus Hirudo). Journal of Natural History 45: 737-747.
Sawyer, R.T. 1981. Why we need to save the medicinal leech. Oryx 16: 165-168.
Siddall, M. E., Trontelj, P., Utevsky, S.Y., Nkamany, M., Macdonald III, K.S. 2007. Diverse molecular data demonstrate that commercially available medicinal leeches are not Hirudo medicinalis. Proceedings of The Royal Society 274: 1481-1487.
Trontelj, P. and Utevsky, S.Y. 2005. Celebrity with a neglected taxonomy: molecular systematics of the medicinal leech (genus Hirudo). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34: 616-624.
Trontelj, P. and Utevsky, S.Y. 2012. Phylogeny and phylogeography of medicinal leeches (genus Hirudo): Fast dispersal and shallow genetic structure. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63(474-485).
Utevsky, S., Zagmajster, M., Atemasov, A., Zinenko, O., Utevska O., Utevsky, A., Trontelj , P. 2010. Distribution and status of medicinal leeches (genus Hirudo) in the Western Palaearctic: anthropogenic, ecological, or historical effects? Aquatic Conservation: Marine And Freshwater Ecosystems 20: 198-210.
Wells, S.M., Pyle, R.M. and Collins, N.M. (compilers) 1983. The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
|Citation:||Utevsky, S., Zagmajster, M. & Trontelj, P. 2014. Hirudo medicinalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 July 2015.|
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