|Scientific Name:||Hipposideros lankadiva|
|Species Authority:||Kelaart, 1850|
Hipposideros indus Andersen, 1918
Hipposideros indus Andersen, 1918 subspecies mixtus
Hipposideros indus Andersen, 1918 subspecies unitus
Hipposideros lankadiva Andersen, 1918 subspecies mixtus
Hipposideros lankadiva Andersen, 1918 subspecies unitus
Hipposideros schistaceus K. Andersen, 1918
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species belongs to the diadema species group. The taxon H. schistaceus Andersen, 1918, was previously considered to be distinct at the species level, but is now considered a synonym of Hipposideros lankadiva Kelaart, 1850 (Bates and Harrison 1997, Sinha 1999, Srinivasulu and Srinivasulu 2001, Simmons 2005) (Srinivasulu et al. in press).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Molur, S., Yapa, W. & Srinivasulu, C.|
|Reviewer/s:||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to South Asia where it is widely distributed. It is presently known from Bangladesh (Khulna division) (Khan 2001), India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa, Rajasthan Tripura and West Bengal) and Sri Lanka (Central, Eastern, North Central, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva and Western provinces) (Molur et al. 2002). It has been recoded from sea level to an elevation of around 1,000 m asl. The extent of occurrence is greater than 20,000 km² and the area of occupancy is greater than 2,000 km² (Molur et al. 2002).|
Native:Bangladesh; India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, Rajasthan, West Bengal); Sri Lanka
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Although widely distributed, it is known from only a few locations spread across India and Sri Lanka (Bates and Harrison 1997). Population and trends are not known (Molur et al. 2002). Roost counts in Sri Lanka indicated 11,350 individuals at a single study area (W. Yapa and P.C.M.B. Digana pers. comm.) and around 6,000 individuals in Meghalaya (A. Tabah pers. comm.)|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a colonial species that roosts in small (50 individuals) to very large (several thousand individuals) colonies in caves, old disused tunnels, old temples and cellars under old buildings. It has been recorded sharing its roosting sites with Megaderma lyra, and other species of bats (Bates and Harrison 1997, C. Srinivasulu per. obs. 28.9.07). The species has been found in association with other bats including Hipposideros fulvus, H. galeritus, H. speoris, Miniopterus schrebersii, Rhinolophus rouxi and Rousettus leschenaulti in Sri Lanka (W. Yapa and P.C.M.B. Digana pers. comm.). In Meghalaya it is found in mixed colonies of Hipposideros armiger, Ia io, Miniopterus schrebersii, Myotis blythii, Rhinolophus pearsonii and Rousettus leschenaulti (A. Tabah pers. comm.). It occurs in southern dry zone, lower foothills and wet zone hills of Sri Lanka (Phillips 1980). It is an early and high flyer, and feeds on large beetles (coleopterans) and other large and hard bodied insects. This species breeds once a year and gives birth to a single young after a gestation period of 260 days (Bates and Harrison 1997).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened by habitat loss, largely through commercial logging and the conversion of land for agricultural use, for plantation of cash crops and for human settlements. It is very sensitive to disturbance to roosting sites and is hunted for local consumption and medicinal purposes (Molur et al. 2002).|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no direct conservation measures in place. The species has been recorded from protected areas in India including the Nagarjunasagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Andhra Pradesh (Srinivasulu and Nagulu 2002) and Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh (Harshey and Chandra 2001). Additional studies are needed into the distribution, abundance, breeding biology, general ecology and threats to this species. Populations should be monitored to record changes in abundance and distribution. Public awareness campaigns are recommended (Molur et al. 2002).|
Bates, P. J. J. and Harrison, D. L. 1997. Bats of the Indian Subcontinent. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, England, UK.
Ellerman, J. R. and Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. 1951. Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian Mammals 1758 to 1946. British Museum (Natural History), London, UK.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Khan, M. A. R. 2001. Status and dsitribution of bats in Bangladesh with notes on their ecology. Zoos'Print Journal 16(5): 479-483.
Molur, S., Marimuthu, G., Srinivasulu, C., Mistry, S. Hutson, A. M., Bates, P. J. J., Walker, S., Padmapriya, K. and Binupriya, A. R. 2002. Status of South Asian Chiroptera: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P.) Workshop Report. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.
Simmons, N. B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Sinha, Y. P. 1999. Contribution to the knowledge of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of North East Hills India. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, India.
Srinivasulu, C. and Srinivasulu, B. 2001. Bats of the Indian Subcontinent – An update. Current Science 80(11): 1378-1380.
Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B. and Sinha, Y. P. In press. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of South Asia: Biogeography, diversity, taxonomy and distribution. Journal of Threatened Taxa.
|Citation:||Molur, S., Yapa, W. & Srinivasulu, C. 2008. Hipposideros lankadiva. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 08 March 2014.|
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