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Hippocampus sindonis 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Syngnathiformes Syngnathidae

Scientific Name: Hippocampus sindonis Jordan & Snyder, 1901
Common Name(s):
English Sindo's Seahorse
Taxonomic Source(s): Jordan, D.S. and Snyder, J.O. 1901. A review of the hypostomide and lophobranchiate fishes of Japan. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 24(1241): 1-20.
Taxonomic Notes: This species has often been misidentified as H. coronatus or H. mohnikei.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-08-25
Assessor(s): Pollom, R.
Reviewer(s): Ralph, G.
Justification:
Hippocampus sindonis is a coastal seahorse that inhabits seagrass, coral, algae, and soft-bottom substrates in Japan and South Korea. The species may be threatened by coral and seagrass habitat loss but is able to utilise other habitat types. There are no other known threats, therefore this species is listed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Hippocampus sindonis occurs in Japan off Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, and in South Korea (Lourie et al. 1999, Kim et al. 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku); Korea, Republic of
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – northwest
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):UnknownEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:Unknown
Lower depth limit (metres):75
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:To date there have been no dedicated surveys or population estimates for Hippocampus sindonis. Further research is needed in order to determine population size and trends in abundance.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:UnknownPopulation severely fragmented:Unknown
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:UnknownAll individuals in one subpopulation:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Hippocampus sindonis inhabits areas with seagrass, coral, algae, and soft-bottom substrates (Kuiter 2000, iSeahorse 2016). Little is known about feeding, but other seahorses tend to consume crustaceans such as gammarid, caprellid, and caridean shrimps, mysids, amphipods, and copepods (Woods 2002, Kendrick and Hyndes 2005, Kitsos et al. 2008). Their reproductive biology is also unknown, but seahorses in general are ovoviviparous and males brood the young in a pouch prior to giving live birth (Foster and Vincent 2004). This species reaches a maximum size of 8 cm (Lourie et al. 1999).
Systems:Marine
Movement patterns:Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is no record of Hippocampus sindonis in trade, but seahorses in general are traded heavily worldwide for use as aquarium pets, curios, and in traditional medicines (Vincent et al. 2011). This species may be involved but levels of offtake, if any, are unknown.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Hippocampus sindonis may be threatened by coral reef and seagrass degradation and loss resulting from coastal development and pollution, destructive fishing practices such as trawling, ocean acidification, and the effects of climate change (Carpenter et al. 2008, Short et al. 2011). It is however able to utilise other habitat types. 
The species may be targeted and/or caught as bycatch in trawl fisheries and subsequently traded for use in aquariums, as curios, and in traditional medicines (Vincent et al. 2011). Levels of offtake are currently unknown.

Seahorses in general may be particularly susceptible to decline. All seahorse species have vital parental care, and many species studied to date have high site fidelity (Perante et al. 2002, Vincent et al. 2005), highly structured social behaviour (Vincent and Sadler 1995), and relatively sparse distributions (Lourie et al. 1999). The importance of life history parameters in determining response to exploitation has been demonstrated for a number of species (Jennings et al. 1998).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species has been listed under CITES Appendix II ensuring that international trade of this species is monitored. It is unknown whether the species occurs in any marine protected areas. 
Further research is needed on the biology, ecology, threats and population trends of this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.6. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Muddy
suitability:Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.7. Marine Neritic - Macroalgal/Kelp
suitability:Suitable  
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.9. Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
suitability:Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:No
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:Unknown
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.3. Temperature extremes
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.4. Storms & flooding
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.1. Sewage
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.2. Run-off
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.1. Nutrient loads
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.3. Trade trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

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iNaturalist. 2016. Observations of Hippocampus sindonis. San Francisco, California, USA Available at: http://www.inaturalist.org/observations?taxon_id=102834. (Accessed: 24-August-2016).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).

Jordan, D.S. and Snyder, J.O. 1901. A review of the hypostomide and lophobranchiate fishes of Japan. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 24(1241): 1-20.

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Kim, S. Y., Kweon, S. M., and Choi, S. H. 2013. First record of Hippocampus sindonis (Syngnathiformes:Syngnathdae) from Korea. 한국어류학회지 25(1): 41-44.

Kitsos, M.S., Tzomos, T., Anagnostopoulou, L. and Koukouras, A. 2008. Diet composition of the seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier, 1829 and Hippocampus hippocampus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae) in the Aegean Sea. Journal of Fish Biology 72(6): 1259-1267.

Kuiter, R.H. 2000. Seahorses, Pipefishes and Their Relatives: A Comprehensive Guide to Syngnathiformes. TMC Publishing, Chorleywood, England.

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Citation: Pollom, R. 2017. Hippocampus sindonis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T10083A54906192. . Downloaded on 26 April 2018.
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