|Scientific Name:||Hippocampus ingens|
|Species Authority:||Girard, 1858|
Hippocampus ecuadorensis Fowler, 1922
Hippocampus gracilis Gill, 1862
Hippocampus hildebrandi Ginsburg, 1933
|Taxonomic Notes:||The order for this Family has changed from Syngnathiformes to Gasterosteiformes (Nelson 2006).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd+4cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Czembor, C.A., Rojas, A. & Acero, A.|
|Reviewer/s:||Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A., Ram, M. & Foster, S.|
This species is widely distributed in the Eastern Pacific region, but is considered rare throughout its range. Although there is limited information on changes in population numbers of this species, local estimates of population declines of between 50 and 90% have been reported. It is therefore conservatively suspected that population declines of at least 30% haven taken place over a period of 10 years, and that declines are continuing.
Declines result from targeted catch, incidental capture, and habitat degradation from coastal development. Once caught, H. ingens are used throughout Latin America for curios, occasionally in traditional medicine, and in the live aquarium trade. The vast majority are exported internationally for use in traditional medicine. It is therefore listed as Vulnerable under Criterion A2cd+4cd.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from Southern California through the Gulf of California to Peru, including the Cocos, Malpelo and Galápagos Islands (Anon. 2002).|
Native:Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland), Galápagos); El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; United States
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species was modestly abundant in the Galapagos, but is now rare. It is not common in Malpelo or Gorgona Island and there is a decreasing abundance suspected in the Gulf of California.
Interviews with shrimp fishers on the Pacific coast of Mexico in 2000 estimated that CPUE of H. ingens had declined from hundreds or thousands caught per month to tens or none (a decline of 75–90% of estimated catch relative to the previous 15–30 years) attributed to overexploitation and trade (Baum and Vincent 2005). Declines were also seen in Ecuador, and were likely due to heavy fishing pressure. Target H. ingens fisheries on the Pacific coasts of Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru have experienced declines of approximately 50% in a similar time period (Baum and Vincent 2005). It is therefore conservative to estimate a decline of just 30% over its entire range over the past three generations, which is suspected to continue, if not accelerate, into the future.
|Habitat and Ecology:||This reef-associated species inhabits weed beds, sea-whips and gorgonians, usually at depths of 1—20 m. It is also known to be associated with flotsam as it has been collected at the surface and from the stomachs of the Pacific Yellowfin Tuna and Bluefin Tuna (Humann and Deloach 1993, Lourie et al. 2004). Maximum recorded depth for this species is 60 m. This species is sometimes caught by tuna purse seiners in the open ocean, possibly from drifting algae.|
This species is of commercial importance for the international aquarium trade (Sánchez 1997) the traditional medicinal trades and as curios (Baum and Vincent 2005, Evanson et al. 2011). It is often caught as by-catch in the shrimp fisheries in Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Ecuador, and Peru and surveys of Latin America have estimated that between 199,000 and 380,000 seahorses are incidentally caught on the Pacific coast each year (Baum and Vincent 2005). It is commercially exported from, Peru, Mexico, and the US (UNEP-WCMC 2012). There is also anecdotal evidence from fishers and traders of declines in seahorse availability, which raises concerns for this species (Baum and Vincent 2005).
This species may be particularly susceptible to decline resulting from degradation of habitat from coastal development, tourism and fisheries because they inhabit relatively shallow areas (Lourie et al. 2004) where these threats are most pronounced. Like most seahorses, H. ingens have been shown to have high site fidelity and relatively small broods (Lourie et al. 2004,Saarman et al. 2010), which makes them sensitive to disturbance and limits their potential for recovery.
This species is listed on CITES in Appendix II.
There are no known conservation measures for this species however, this species distribution falls into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (WDPA 2006). Hippocampus ingens is listed on Mexico’s NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001 as a species subject to special protection; intentional capture and trade of wild seahorses is prohibited. In Panama, H. ingens are included under the Ministry of Agriculture’s decree 19.450, which regulates the extraction of coral reef fishes.
Anon. 2002. Hippocampus erectus; Hippocampus ingens; Hippocampus reidi. In: M. Luz Stella Mejia & P. Arturo Acero (ed.), Libro rojo de peces marinos de Colombia, pp. 77-83.
Baum, J.K. and Vincent, A.C.J. 2005. Magnitude and inferred impacts of the seahorse trade in Latin America. Environmental Conservation 32(4): 305-319.
Breder, C.M. and Rosen, D.E. 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey, USA.
Evanson, M., Foster, S. J. & Vincent, A. C. J. 2011. Tracking the international trade of seahorses (Hippocampus species) - The importance of CITES. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada.
Girard, C. 1858. Fishes In General: report upon zoology for the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857. U. S. Senate Misc. Doc. 78: 1-400.
Humann, P. and Deloach, N. 1993. Reef fish identification: Galápagos. New World Publications, Florida, USA.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Lourie, S.A., Foster, S.J., Cooper, E.W.T. and Vincent, A.C.J. 2004. A Guide to the Identification of Seahorses. Project Seahorse and TRAFFIC North America, University of British Columbia and World Wildlife Fund, Washington D.C.
Lourie, S.A., Vincent, A.C.J. and Hall, H.J. 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London, U.K.
Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the World. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken.
Saarman, N. P., Louie, K. D., and Hamilton, H. 2010. Genetic differentiation across eastern Pacific oceanographic barriers in the threatened seahorse Hippocampus ingens. Conservation Genetics 11(5): 1989-2000.
Sánchez, A.C. 1997. Listado taxonomico de las especies marinas identificadas en los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico (Caribe) de Nicaragua. In: MEDE PESCA (ed.). Ministerio de Economía y Desarrollo, Managua, Nicaragua.
UNEP-WCMC. 2012a. CITES trade statistics derived from the CITES Trade Database. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK.
UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre/ IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas. 2006. World Database on Protected Areas. Available at: http://www.unep-wcmc.org/wdpa/index.htm.
WDPA. 2006. Database on Protected Areas. A database online managed by UNEP-WCMC/IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). Available at: http://www.unep-wcmc.org/wdpa/index.htm.
|Citation:||Czembor, C.A., Rojas, A. & Acero, A. 2012. Hippocampus ingens. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 09 March 2014.|
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