|Scientific Name:||Hippocampus bargibanti Whitley, 1970|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Gomon, M.F. 1997. A remarkable new pygmy seahorse (Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from South-Eastern Australia, with a description of H. bargibanti Whitley from New Caledonia. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56(1): 245–253.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, R. & Ralph, G.|
Hippocampus bargibanti is a coral reef-inhabiting pygmy seahorse that inhabits the Indo-West Pacific from southern Sumatra to New Caledonia and from Tokyo, Japan, to the southern edge of Australia's Great Barrier Reef. The species is only found on Muricella corals. They may be threatened by habitat loss due to coastal development, polllution, destructive fishing practices, and the effects of climate change. Further research is needed to determine population size, trends in abundance, and how these threats are affecting the species. Therefore H. bargibanti is listed as Data Deficient.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Hippocampus bargibanti inhabits waters in the Indo-West Pacific from southern Sumatra to New Caledonia and from Tokyo, Japan, to the southern edge of Australia's Great Barrier Reef (Lourie et al. 2016).|
Native:Australia (Queensland); Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Kalimantan, Lesser Sunda Is., Maluku, Papua, Sulawesi, Sumatera); Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Nansei-shoto); New Caledonia; Papua New Guinea (Papua New Guinea (main island group)); Philippines; Solomon Islands (South Solomons); Taiwan, Province of China (Taiwan, Province of China (main island))
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Pacific – western central; Pacific – northwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There has been one local study completed on population density for Hippocampus bargibanti. 0.34 (+/-0.20) individuals per 200m² were observed over a 20 km coastal MPA in southeast Sulawesi (Smith et al. 2012). None of the Muricella gorgonian coral species on which this species lives have been assessed on the IUCN Red List. The species may decline if ocean acidification or warming waters affect their coral hosts. Further research is needed to determine the overall population size and trends in abundance for H. bargibanti.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Hippocampus bargibanti inhabits coral reefs and uses Muricella spp. corals as its obligatory holdfast (Smith et al. 2012). Little is known about feeding, but they are likely similar to other seahorses in consuming small crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods and harpacticoid copepods (e.g. Kendrick and Hyndes 2005, Valladares et al. 2016). Like all other seahorses, this species is ovoviviparous and it is the males who brood and subsequently give birth to live young (Foster and Vincent 2004, Smith 2010).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||There are no records of trade in Hippocampus bargibanti. Although the species is likely attractive for the aquarium trade, they are notoriously hard to find and do not do well in captivity.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened by coral reef degradation and loss as a result of coastal development and pollution, destructive fishing practices such as bottom trawling and the use of dynamite, ocean acidification, and the effects of climate change including rising sea temperatures and increased storms (Bruno and Selig 2007, Carpenter et al. 2008, De'Ath et al. 2012, Normile 2016). The Muricella spp. that this species inhabits may be buffered to some degree from some of these threats due to their depth. Further research is needed to determine how Muricella corals are coping with climate change and what effect this has on populations of H. bargibanti.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation actions in place for Hippocampus bargibanti. The entire genus Hippocampus was listed in Appendix II of CITES in 2004, and is protected in Australia. The species occurs in more than one protected area (e.g., the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park). Addressing destructive fishing practices and mitigating climate change would be the most effective interventions for conserving this species.|
Bruno, J.F. and Selig, E.R. 2007. Regional Decline of Coral Cover in the Indo-Pacific: Timing, Extent, and Subregional Comparisons. Plos One 2(8): e711.
Carpenter, K.E., Abrar, M., Aeby, G., Aronson, R.B., Banks, S., Bruckner, A., Chiriboga, A., Cortes, J., Delbeek, J.C., DeVaniter, L., Edgar, G.J., Edwards, A.J., Fenner, D., Guzman, H.M., Hoeksema, B.W., Hodgson, G., Johan, O., Licuanan, W.Y., Livingstone, S.R., Lovell, E.R., Moore, J.A., Obura, D.A., Ochavillo, D., Polidoro, B.A., Precht, W.F., Quibilan, M.C., Reboton, C., Richards, Z.T., Rogers, A.D., Sanciangco, J., Sheppard, A., Sheppard, C., Smith, J., Stuart, S., Turak, E., Veron, J.E.N., Wallace, C., Weil, E. and Wood, E. 2008. One-third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts. Science 321(5888): 560-563.
De'ath, G., Fabricius, K.E., Sweatman, H. and Puotinen, M. 2012. The 27 – year decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(144): 17995-17999.
Gomon, M.F. 1997. A remarkable new pygmy seahorse (Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from South-Eastern Australia, with a description of H. bargibanti Whitley from New Caledonia. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56(1): 245–253.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
Lourie, S.A., Pollom, R.A. and Foster, S.J. 2016. A global revision of the seahorses Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 (Actinopterygii: Syngnathiformes): Taxonomy and biogeography with recommendations for future research. Zootaxa 4146(1): 1-66.
Lourie, S.A., Vincent, A.C.J. and Hall, H.J. 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London, U.K.
Normile, D. 2016. El Niño’s warmth devastating reefs worldwide. Available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/03/el-ni-o-s-warmth-devastating-reefs-worldwide. (Accessed: 21-April-2016).
Smith, R. E. 2010. PhD Thesis. The Biology and Conservation of Gorgonian-Associated Pygmy Seahorses. School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, 162 pp.
Smith, R. E., Grutter, A. S., and Tibbetts, I. R. 2012. Extreme habitat specialisation and population structure of two gorgonian-associated pygmy seahorses. Marine Ecology Progress Series 444: 195-206.
|Citation:||Pollom, R. 2017. Hippocampus bargibanti. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T10060A54904073.Downloaded on 22 April 2018.|
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