|Scientific Name:||Rhea pennata|
|Species Authority:||d'Orbigny, 1834|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Pterocnemia pennata (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was provisionally split into P. pennata and P. tarapacensis by Stotz et al. (1996) but this treatment has not been adopted, following SACC (2005). Use of the genus Rhea follows SACC (2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Jaramillo, A., Knapton, B. & Pearman, M.|
This species qualifies as Near Threatened as declines in its population are suspected to approach the threshold for classification as Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||Rhea pennata occurs in three subspecies: pennata in south Chile, west-central and south Argentina, with an introduced population in north Tierra del Fuego; tarapacensis in north Chile; and garleppi in south Peru, south-west Bolivia and north-west Argentina. All populations have declined markedly and the northern subspecies are in serious danger of extinction (Folch 1992). The combined population of tarapacensis and garleppi is estimated at several hundred birds, with the healthiest populations in Argentina (densities at two sites of 2-5 birds/km2) (Chebez 1994). In 1983, the Peruvian population was estimated at 18 individuals, with very low numbers in north Chile (principally in Lauca National Park [A. Jaramillo in litt. 1999]) and on the altiplano in Bolivia.|
Native:Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Chile; Peru
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The nominate subspecies inhabits steppe, shrubland, shrub-steppe and mallines (successional wetlands with bog, meadows and ponds) (Bellis et al. 2006), up to 1,500 m, generally breeding in upland areas with bunch-grass. The northern subspecies are found in desertic salt puna, pumice flats, upland bogs and tola (Lepidophyllum) heath in altiplano at 3,000-4,500 m, down to 1,500 m in the south.
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I (except nominate race, which is on Appendix II). Conservation Actions Proposed
Develop campaigns to raise awareness and reduce hunting, egg-collecting and the domestication of wild immature birds. Prevent illegal hunting and egg-collecting, while developing alternative sustainable harvesting programmes (Barri et al. 2008b). Harvest "orphan eggs" (eggs sporadically laid outside nests) for use in captive breeding and reintroduction programmes (Barri et al. 2008a). Maintain "mallín" (meadow) habitats in adequate condition as nesting sites (Bellis et al. 2006, Barri et al. 2008b, Barri et al. 2009). Monitor remaining populations of tarapacensis and garleppi.
Barri, F. R., Martella, M. B. and Navarro, J. L. 2008. Characteristics, abundance and fertility of orphan eggs of the Lesser Rhea (Pterocnemia-Rhea-pennata pennata): implications for conservation. Journal of Ornithology 149(2): 285-288.
Barri, F. R.; Martella, M. B.; Navarro, J. L. 2009. Nest-site habitat selection by Lesser Rheas (Rhea pennata pennata) in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Ornithology 150(2): 511-514.
Bellis, L. M.; Navarro, J. L.; Vignolo, P. E.; Martella, M. B. 2006. Habitat preferences of Lesser Rheas in Argentine Patagonia. Biodiversity and Conservation 15(9): 3065-3075.
Chebez, J. C. 1994. Los que se van: especies argentinas en peligro. Albatros, Buenos Aires.
Folch, A. 1992. Rheidai (Rheas). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 84-89. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Rocha O., O.; Quiroga, C. 1996. Aves. In: Ergueta, S.; de Morales, C. (ed.), Libro Rojo de los vertebrados de Bolivia, pp. 95-164. Centro de Datos para la Conservación, La Paz.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Rhea pennata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 June 2013.|
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