Hapalemur aureus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES LEMURIDAE

Scientific Name: Hapalemur aureus
Species Authority: Meier, Albignac, Peyriéras, Rumpler & Wright, 1987
Common Name(s):
English Golden Bamboo Lemur, Golden Lemur
French Hapalémur Doré
Spanish Lemur Cariancho

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:

This species has a very small remaining population size. The number of mature individuals is <250 and is continuing in decline. The number of mature individuals in each subpopulation is <50. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Critically Endangered. 

History:
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Endangered (Groombridge 1994)
1990 Endangered (IUCN 1990)
1990 Endangered (IUCN 1990)
1988 Indeterminate (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from the rain forests of southeastern Madagascar, at elevations of 600-1,400 m asl, where it can be found in and around Ranomafana National Park (where discovered in 1983 and not known from north of Miaronony), Andringitra National Park (discovered in 1993), to the north-east possibly to the region of Betsakafandrika, and in a forest corridor that connects Ranomafana with Andringitra National Park (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein).
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species has a patchy distribution and typically occurs at low densities. Estimated density is 0.21 individuals/km2 with a total estimated population of 69 within Ranomafana National Park. These data are based on over a hundred transect surveys from 2004 to 2009. An estimated 630 individuals remain in total, with less than 250 mature individuals. Population numbers are in decline due to habitat loss and hunting.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is found in humid forests and marshes with bamboo and reeds. The Golden Bamboo Lemur is a diurnal species with a distinct midday rest period. It lives in small groups, usually of three to four individuals, that maintain home ranges of up 30 ha. Females typically give birth to a single young in November and December after a gestation of about 138 days. The young are born in an altricial state and are kept safe in dense vegetation for the first two weeks of life. Based on studies at Ranomafana National Park, as much as 90% of this lemur’s diet may consist of bamboo, the majority of which is the giant bamboo (Cathariostachys madagascariensis) (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein). Glander et al. (1989) found astonishingly high levels of cyanide in the shoots of giant bamboo as well as in the blood and feces of the golden bamboo lemur, and suggest that similar levels in the diets of other mammals would be lethal. Presumably, this tolerance to dietary toxins allows H.aureus to live in sympatry with three other bamboo-eating lemurs, H. meridionalis, H. g. ranomafanensis and Prolemur simus, all of which appear to avoid either plant species or plant parts with high cyanide levels (Wright and Randrimanantena 1989.)
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for food.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat is habitat loss due to slash-and-burn agriculture and harvesting for bamboo for building houses, carrying water, making baskets and other local uses. Hunting is also a threat in some parts of the range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. This species has a notably small and patchy distribution and typically occurs at low population densities. It is known to occur in two national parks (Andringitra and Ranomafana). The Ranomafana / Andringitra forest corridor has been proposed as a conservation unit in conjunction with efforts to propagate and re-establish stands of bamboo varieties that serve as food for this species. In 2005 the total world population was estimated at probably less than 2,500. As of 2010, this species was not being kept in captivity (ISIS 2009; E.E. Louis Jr. pers. comm.).




Bibliography [top]

Glander, K.E., Wright, P.C., Seigler, D.S. and Randrianasolo, B. 1989. Consumption of a cyanogenic bamboo by a newly discovered species of bamboo lemur. American Journal of Primatology 19: 119-124.

ISIS. 2009. International Species Information System. Apple Valley, MN Available at: www.isis.org. (Accessed: 01.01.2009).

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.

Wright P.C. and Randrimanantena, M. 1989. Comparative ecology of three sympatric bamboo lemurs in Madagascar. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 78: 327.


Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Hapalemur aureus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 July 2014.
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