Eudorcas rufifrons 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Eudorcas rufifrons (Gray, 1846)
Common Name(s):
English Red-fronted Gazelle
Synonym(s):
Gazella rufifrons Gray, 1846
Taxonomic Notes: The number of subspecies recognized has varied in the past depending on whether this species was treated as conspecific with related forms, namely Thomson’s Gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii) and Mongalla Gazelle (E. albonotata) (Gentry 1972, Kingdon 1997, East 1999). Furthermore, the form tilonura, from east of the Nile River, is either considered a subspecies of E. rufifrons (e.g., Grubb 2005), or a distinct species (Groves 2013). The treatment here follows Groves (2013) in recognizing, at least provisionally, three species: E. rufifrons occurring from Senegal to Sudan, west of the White Nile; E. albonotata in the Sudd of South Sudan, and E. tilonura to the east of the Blue Nile. Genetic research to clarify the relationships between these three forms and E. thomsonii is highly desirable.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-09-09
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M.
Justification:
Red-fronted Gazelle is listed as Vulnerable because its populations have been reduced to scattered remnants over most of its range by illegal hunting, competition with domestic livestock, and habitat degradation. This reduction is suspected to be greater than 30% over the last three generations (13 years). Some populations in protected areas have increased, but the majority of the population resides outside of protected areas. If present trends continue, the Red-fronted Gazelle’s distribution and numbers will probably decline further until its status becomes Endangered; for example, at present less than 10% of its total numbers occur in populations which are known to be stable or increasing. Field surveys are urgently needed to assess its current status.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species formerly occurred throughout dry grasslands and sahelian bushlands from southern Mauritania and northern Senegal to the western side of the Nile River in Sudan. It is likely to be extinct in Ghana. It has now been reduced to scattered, localised patches (Scholte and Hashim 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Sudan
Regionally extinct:
Ghana
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The available information on this species’ numbers is based mainly on informed guesses. East (1999) produced an estimated total population of about 21,000, including ca 4,000 in Niger and ca 3,000 in Mali. Numbers in both these countries are now considered to be much lower and population trends throughout the range are almost universally downwards. Based on widespread hunting, clearance of habitat for agriculture and expansion of livestock grazing, the total population is estimated to number around 12,000. Numbers in Sudan have been greatly depleted (I.M. Hashim, in litt. 2016).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Formerly this species was widespread in the Sahel zone in the sahelian grasslands, savannas and savanna woodlands, and shrubland. Red-fronted Gazelle is able to adapt to human occupation of its habitat to some extent; for example, it is known to reoccupy fallow land if sufficient cover is available. It occurs locally in small to moderate numbers in areas of largely unexploited rangeland. They are known to make seasonal movements in parts of the range, although these are increasingly restricted by human settlement.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4.4

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is targeted by poachers for their meat, skins and as pets (Scholte and Hashim 2013). Jeannin (1936) reported on a group of hunters that, with dogs and nets, had collected more than 1,600 skins in a three-and-a-half month period in north Cameroon. The hundreds of gazelles kept in cities such as N'Djamena have generally been taken as young from the wild and subsequently raised with goats (Scholte and Hashim 2013).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Red-fronted Gazelle populations have been reduced to scattered remnants over most of its range by illegal hunting, competition with domestic livestock, and habitat degradation resulting from drought, overgrazing of livestock and clearance of land for agriculture.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Approximately 15% of the range of this species occurred in protected areas (East 1999), in particular W N.P. (Niger, Burkina Faso, Benin), Waza N.P. (Cameroon) and Zakouma N.P. (Chad) (East 1999, Scholte and Hashim 2013). The extension of effective protection and management to additional populations besides those in areas such as Zakouma and Waza National Parks is necessary. Development and implementation of land use plans which allow for the needs of wildlife outside protected areas in countries such as Chad and Sudan would also be of major benefit to many of the remaining populations of this species (East 1999).

A limited number of Red-fronted Gazelles (<25) are maintained in captivity, but without formal breeding programmes.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):11-20
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Gentry, A.W. 1972. Genus Gazella. In: J. Meester & H.W. Setzer (eds), The Mammals of Africa: An Identification Manual, pp. 85-93. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C, USA.

Groves, C. 2013. Genus Eudorcas Ring-horned gazelles. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffman (eds), Mammals of Africa. VI., pp. 356-357. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.

Groves, C.P. 2013. Genus Eudorcas Ring-horned gazelles. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), Mammals of Africa. VI. Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer, and Bovids, pp. 356-357. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder (ed.), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).

Jeannin, A. 1936. Les Mammifères sauvages du Cameroun. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Scholte, P. and Hashim, I. 2013. Eudorcas rufifrons Red-fronted Gazelle. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. VI. Pigs, Deer, Giraffe, Bovids, and Hippos, pp. 357-359. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Eudorcas rufifrons. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T8973A50187042. . Downloaded on 17 December 2017.
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