Mantella milotympanum 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Mantellidae

Scientific Name: Mantella milotympanum
Species Authority: Staniszewski, 1996
Common Name(s):
English Black-eared Mantella, Black-eared Golden Mantella
Mantella aurantiaca ssp. milotympanum Staniszewski, 1996
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This species and Mantella crocea might represent colour variants of the same species (M. Vences and F. Glaw pers. comm.; Chiari et al. 2004). Populations with intermediate characteristics between Mantella crocea and M. milotympanum have been recorded from north of Fierenana, Andriabe, Savakoanina and the Zahamena reserve (Chiari et al. 2004). The taxonomy of this species and of Mantella manery have been confused by amateurs using pseudo-scientific names in the pet-trade literature before the species were properly described.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Vences, M. & Nussbaum, R.
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S. & Cox, N.A.
Listed as Critically Endangered because its area of occupancy is probably less than 10 km², its distribution is severely fragmented, and the extent of its forest habitat in east-central Madagascar is probably declining.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in several fragmented localities in east-central Madagascar covering a small area south of Fierenana, at 900-1,000m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):900
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a locally common species, and has been observed at high densities.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a terrestrial species living in gallery forest around large swamps, and in seasonally flooded forest, but is not found outside forest. Breeding is the same as other mantellas, with the eggs being laid on land and the larvae being washed into swamps by rain. It is very seasonal in its breeding, and hard to find when it is not breeding.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The area where this species occurs is severely threatened, with its forest habitat receding due to the impacts of subsistence agriculture (including livestock grazing), timber extraction, charcoal production, the spread of eucalyptus, fires, and expanding human settlements. It has, in the past, been collected in large numbers by commercial collectors, and trade might pose a major threat to the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is not known from any protected areas, making protection of remaining habitat a top priority, particularly given the high rate of habitat loss and degradation within its range. The species also requires careful population monitoring, and any trade should be carefully regulated. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Andreone, F., Cadle, J.E., Cox, N., Glaw, F., Nussbaum, R.A., Raxworthy, C.J., Stuart, S.N., Vallan, D. and Vences, M. 2005. A species review of amphibian extinction risks in Madagascar: results from the Global Amphibian Assessment. Conservation Biology: 1790-1802.

Andreone, F., Cox, N., Glaw, F., Rabibisoa, N.A.C., Randriamahazo, H., Randrianasolo, H., Raxworthy, C.J., Stuart, S., Vallan, D. and Vences, M. 2008. Update of the Global Amphibian Assessment for Malagasy amphibians in light of new species discoveries, taxonomic changes, and new field information. In: F. Andreone (ed.), A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar, Monografie del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino, 419-436.

Andreone, F., Mercurio, V. and Mattioli, F. 2006. Between environmental degradation and international pet trade: conservation strategies for the threatened amphibians of Madagascar. Natura – Soc. it. Sci. nat. Museo civ. Stor. Nat. Milano, (Milano, Italy) 95(2): 81-96.

Chiari, Y., Vences, M., Vieites, D.R., Rabemananjara, F., Bora, P., Ramilijaona Ravoahangimalala, O. and Meyer, A. 2004. New evidence for parallel evolution of colour patterns in Malagasy poison frogs (Mantella). Molecular Ecology 13: 3763-3774.

Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2007. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Cologne.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Jovanovic, O., Rabemananjara, F., Ramilijaona, O., Andreone, F., Glaw, F. and Vnces, M. 2006. Frogs of Madagascar, Genus Mantella. Pocket Identification Guide. Conservation International. Tropical Pocket Guide Series, Washington DC.

Randrianirina, J.E. 2005. Nouvelles données sur la distribution d'une espèce de grenouille menacée dans la foret de Fierenana, Madagascar, Mantella milotympanum (Amphibia, Mantellidae). Bulletin de la Société Herpétologique de France 115: 48-54.

Staniszewski, M. 1996. Mantellas in captivity. Reptilian Magazine: 16-26.

Staniszewski, M. 2001. Mantellas. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Vences, M., Glaw, F. and Böhme, W. 1999. A review of the genus Mantella (Anura, Ranidae, Mantellinae): taxonomy, distribution and conservation of the Malagasy poison frogs. Alytes 17: 3-72.

Citation: Vences, M. & Nussbaum, R. 2008. Mantella milotympanum. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T57448A11641404. . Downloaded on 26 May 2017.
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