Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Leptodactylidae

Scientific Name: Adenomera marmorata
Species Authority: Steindachner, 1867
Leptodactylus marmorata Steindachner, 1867
Leptodactylus marmoratus (Steindachner, 1867)
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: This species is a complex of several cryptic species. Kwet (2007) recently removed Leptodactylus nanus from the synonymy with Leptodactylus marmoratus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-11-12
Assessor(s): Ariadne Angulo
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species from southeastern Brazil occurs in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Paraná. Populations in the states of Espírito Santo (Almeida and Angulo, 2006) and Santa Catarina (Kwet, 2007) were recently found not to be conspecific with Leptodactylus marmoratus. The species ranges up to 1200 masl.
Countries occurrence:
Brazil (Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo)
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is a very common species. It experienced a population decline at Estação Biológica de Boracéia, but has since rebounded and is abundant again.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a diurnal species that lives on the ground in primary and secondary forest, and also in clearings and on the forest edge, as well as in gardens. Males commonly call from the ground under vegetation in the late afternoons. The eggs are laid on the ground; tadpoles live and develop in the leaf-litter outside water.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats are probably related to habitat loss due to agriculture, clear-cutting and human settlement.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in many protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Almeida, A.P., and Angulo, A. 2006. A new species of Leptodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, with remarks on the systematics of associated populations. Zootaxa 1334: 1-25.

Cei, J.M. 1980. Amphibians of Argentina. Monitore Zoologico Italiano N.S. Monografia.

Cochran, D.M. 1955. Frogs of southeastern Brazil. United States National Museum Bulletin: 1-423.

Dixo, M. and Verdade, V.K. 2006. Herpetofauna de serrapilheira da Reserva Florestal de Morro Grande, Cotia (SP). Biota Neotropica: 1-20.

Eterovick, P.C., Carnaval, A.C.O.Q., Borges-Nojosa, D.M., Silvano, D.L., Segalla, M.V. and Sazima, I. 2005. Amphibian declines in Brazil: an overview. Biotropica: 166-179.

Heyer, W.R. 1973. Systematics of the marmoratus group of the frog genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County - Contributions in Science: 1-50.

Heyer, W.R. 1974. Relationships of the Marmoratus species group (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae) within the subfamily Leptodactylinae. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County - Contributions in Science: 1-46.

Heyer, W.R., Rand, A.S., Cruz, C.A.G. and Peixoto, O.L. 1988. Decimations, extinctions, and colonizations of frog populations in southeast Brazil and their evolutionary implications. Biotropica: 230-235.

Heyer, W.R., Rand, A.S., Cruz, C.A.G., Peixoto, O.L. and Nelson, C.E. 1990. Frogs of Boracéia. Arquivos de Zoologia: 231-410.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: (Accessed: 29 June 2010).

Izecksohn, E. and Carvalho-e-Silva, S.P. 2001. Anfíbios do município do Rio de Janeiro. Editora UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro.

Kwet., A. 2007. Bioacoustic variation in the genus Adenomera in southern Brazil, with revalidation of Leptodactylus nanus Muller, 1922 (Anura, Leptodactylidae). Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl., Zool. Reihe 83 (2007) Supplement 83: 56–68.

Kwet, A. and Angulo, A. 2002. A new species of Adenomera (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from the Araucaria forest of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), with comments on the systematic status of southern populations of the genus. Alytes: 28-43.

Straughan, I.R. and Heyer, W.R. 1976. A functional analysis of the mating calls of the neotropical frog genera of the Leptodactylus complex (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia: 221-245.

Citation: Ariadne Angulo. 2010. Adenomera marmorata. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T56311A11456008. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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