Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Arthroleptidae

Scientific Name: Leptopelis parkeri
Species Authority: Barbour & Loveridge, 1928
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes:

Molecular data suggest that there is more than one species under this name (S. Loader pers. comm. June 2012).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-06-04
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Stuart, S.
Contributor(s): Schiøtz, A., Vonesh, J.R., Poynton, J., Howell, K. & Loader, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Angulo, A.
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 3,684 km2, its population is considered to be severely fragmented, and the quality and extent of its forest habitat in the Eastern Arc Mountains is declining.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to several mountains in the Eastern Arc chain of Tanzania, namely: Uluguru, Udzungwa, East and West Usambara, Nguru and South Pare. It is unlikely that its range is much more extended (S. Loader pers. comm. June 2012). Although mainly a montane species, it lives in the foothills down at least to 300 m asl (perhaps lower), and up to at least 2,000 m asl; however, each mountain has a different elevational occupancy (S. Loader pers. comm. June 2012). Taking range as a proxy for extent of occurrence (EOO), this is estimated to be 3,684 km2. It is considered to occur in six threat-defined locations (S. Loader and J. Vonesh pers. comm. June 2012).
Countries occurrence:
Tanzania, United Republic of
Number of Locations:6
Lower elevation limit (metres):300
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It has been found to be locally common in certain localities (e.g. Nilo, Nguru and Uluguru; S. Loader and J. Vonesh pers. comm. June 2012). Its population is considered to be severely fragmented (S. Loader and J. Vonesh pers. comm. June 2012).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a species that is generally found in good forest habitats. It is presumed that reproduction is by terrestrial eggs and aquatic larvae (S. Loader and J. Vonesh pers. comm. June 2012).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In general, it is highly likely to be affected by ongoing forest loss and degradation, especially by encroaching small-scale agriculture, particularly in areas where forests remain unprotected (S. Loader and J. Vonesh pers. comm. June 2012). Specifically, Menegon et al. (2008) provided information on major threats to the amphibians in the Ngurus, i.e. forest loss and degradation as a result of fire, selective logging, encroachment from agricultural land and the removal of the forest shrub and herb layer for the cultivation of cardamom and yams.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It occurs in Amani, Nilo and Uluguru Nature Reserves and the proposed Chome (South Pare), Udzungwa scarp and Mkingu (Nguru) Nature Reserves; in addition to several other reserves across its distribution (S. Loader pers. comm. June 2012). These reserves are relatively well protected in comparison to other protected areas in the region, although there is still a need for increased protection and improved management (S. Loader pers. comm. June 2012). Additional habitat protection is also required. More information is needed on this species' distribution, population status and natural history.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

Channing, A. and Howell, K.M. 2006. Amphibians of East Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Harper, E. and Vonesh, J.R. 2003. Field Guide to the Amphibians of the East Usambara Mountains. Preliminary Draft.

Howell, K.M. 1993. Herpetofauna of the eastern African forests. In: Lovett, J.C. and Wasser, S.K. (eds), Biogeography and Ecology of the Rain Forests of Eastern Africa, pp. 173-201. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.2). Available at: (Accessed: 13 November 2013).

Menegon, M., Doggart, N. and Owen, N. 2008. The Nguru mountains of Tanzania, an outstanding hotspot of herpetofaunal diversity. Acta Herpetologica 3(2): 107-127.

Pickersgill, M. 2007. Frog Search. Results of Expeditions to Southern and Eastern Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Poynton, J.C. 2003. Altitudinal species turnover in southern Tanzania shown by anurans: some zoogeographical considerations. Systematics and Biodiversity: 117-126.

Schiøtz, A. 1975. The Treefrogs of Eastern Africa. Steenstrupia, Copenhagen.

Schiøtz, A. 1999. Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2013. Leptopelis parkeri. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T56277A3037156. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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