Bufo bufo 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Bufo bufo
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Common Toad
French Crapaud commun, Crapaud vulgaire
Spanish Sapo Común
Rana bufo Linnaeus, 1758
Taxonomic Notes: Bufo bufo is the central member of the Bufo bufo species complex. The systematics of this complex remain unclear. Until recently Bufo verrucosissimus was considered to be a subspecies of Bufo bufo. The taxonomic status of populations allocated to Bufo bufo in Turkey is unclear and requires further investigation.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avisi, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, U?ur Kaya
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is widespread in Europe (excluding Ireland and most Mediterranean islands [though it is present on Sicily]), and northern Eurasia, with populations in parts of West Asia (Turkey, Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon) and north Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). In Europe, it is present in most areas (including the United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden and Finland), ranging as far eastwards as northern Kazakhstan and eastern Siberia. In the Middle East, it is found through much of Turkey, northwestern Syrian Arab Republic, and has recently been recorded from two mountainous locations in Lebanon. In Africa it has a very fragmented range in the more mountainous regions. The species has an altitudinal range of sea level to 3,000m asl, however in northern portions of the range the species occurs at much lower elevations.
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; San Marino; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):3000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Although this species is generally common over much of its range, some localized declines have been observed.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is a widespread and adaptable species present in coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests, groves, bushlands, meadows, arid areas, parks and gardens. It is usually in damp areas with dense vegetation, and large open areas are generally avoided. The species spawns and larval development takes place in still waters and slow-moving parts of rivers and streams. It is present in many modified habitats.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are generally no major threats to this widespread and common species. Populations might be locally impacted through deforestation, drainage of wetlands, pollution, agricultural intensification, urbanization, desertification, mortality on roads (migrating animals), and persecution. In parts of the former Soviet Union it is collected in small numbers for the pet trade. This species can be affected by the increase of UV-B radiation (Lizana and Pedraza 1998). Relict populations in montane areas in Lebanon might be threatened by the impacts of global warming. Chytridiomycosis is a potential threat to the species and has been reported in some Spanish and UK populations. It has declined extensively in Spain due to habitat loss and aridity. One subspecies in Spain, B.b. gredosicola, is threatened by predation by otters and competition with the frog Rana perezi, both of which appear to have moved into higher altitudes as a result of climatic warming. In the United Kingdom the species is increasingly suffering from habitat fragmentation and some unexplained declines have occurred.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed on Appendix III of the Bern Convention and is protected by national and sub-national legislation in many countries. It is recorded on many national and sub-national Red Data books and lists. It is considered to be Near Threatened in Spain because of recent declines due to habitat loss, as well as progressive aridity. The species is present in numerous protected areas. In parts of this species range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.

Classifications [top]

15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
3. Shrubland -> 3.1. Shrubland - Subarctic
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
1. Forest -> 1.2. Forest - Subarctic
1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.2. Problematic native species/diseases -> 8.2.2. Named species [ Pelophylax perezi ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.2. Problematic native species/diseases -> 8.2.2. Named species [ Lutra lutra ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

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Citation: Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avisi, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, U?ur Kaya. 2009. Bufo bufo. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T54596A11159939. . Downloaded on 29 May 2017.
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