Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Abies pindrow
Species Authority: (Royle ex D.Don) Royle
Common Name(s):
English Pindrow Fir, West Himalayan Fir
Pinus pindrow Royle ex D.Don
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-14
Assessor(s): Xiang, Q., Carter, G. & Rushforth, K.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D
Abies pindrow is assessed as Least Concern due to its wide distribution. The typical variety is also assessed as Least Concern, while var. brevifolia is  assessed as Data Deficient due to insufficient information about its taxonomic status and distribution (the varieties do not have separate assessments).
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:A Himalaya species occurring from from Afghanistan east to Nepal, and the Karakoram Range in Pakistan.
Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu-Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh); Nepal; Pakistan
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:6000
Lower elevation limit (metres):2000
Upper elevation limit (metres):3300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Locally dominant.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Abies pindrow is a species of high mountains, occurring between 2,000 m and 3,300 m a.s.l. (occasionally as high as 3,700 m; Liu 1971), on alpine lithosols. The climate is cool, moist monsoon, with abundant precipitation, but less than in the eastern Himalayas, much of it falling as snow. It occurs in pure stands or in association with Picea smithiana, Pinus wallichiana, Tsuga dumosa and Cedrus deodara; at lower elevations broad-leaved trees, e.g. Quercus semecarpifolia, Q. dilatata, Juglans regia, Aesculus indica, Acer spp., Prunus spp., and Ulmus spp. become more important, replacing the conifers below 1,600 m.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Generation Length (years):50

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Pindrow Fir is an important timber tree in the Himalayas, where its timber is used in construction (house building), in particular for interior work such as floor boards, ceilings, and stairs. In some parts shingles are used for roofing. Another application of its wood is for fruit cases and tea boxes. This species remains uncommon in cultivation in Europe and is regularly misidentified, with trees named A. pindrow var. intermedia turning out to belong to A. spectabilis (Rushforth 1987). It requires a mildly cool and wet climate, such as prevails in the western parts of the British Isles.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is logged for its timber in parts of its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Parts of the range of this species fall within protected areas, but most of it is outside reserves.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Construction or structural materials
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008) In Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK. Available at:

Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Rushforth, K. 1987. Conifers. Christopher Helm, London.

Citation: Xiang, Q., Carter, G. & Rushforth, K. 2013. Abies pindrow. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42294A2970337. . Downloaded on 14 October 2015.
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