Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos brevifoliolatus
Species Authority: Vorster
Common Name(s):
English Escarpment Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct in the Wild ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Originally known from a single population of five to seven male plants. Several of the last remaining plants were removed by poachers and conservation officials then removed the last stems to a safe ex situ location in 2004.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2006 Extinct in the Wild (EW)
2003 Critically Endangered (CR)
1998 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is extinct in the wild. They used to be restricted to an area adjacent to the northwestern boundary of the Blyderivierspoort Nature Reserve. The recorded extent of occurrence of 140 km² is for the area in which this species used to occur. It occurred at 1,300 to 1,500 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
South Africa (Limpopo Province)
Number of Locations:0
Lower elevation limit (metres):1300
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is extinct in the wild.
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Plants used to occur in short grassland in very open Protea savanna. The soil is quartzite derived sandstone. Plants also used to occur on cliffs.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Removal of plants from the wild by collectors was the main threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices and plants are in ex situ cultivation.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope: Whole (>90%) ♦ severity: Very Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score: Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Coates Palgrave, K. (Coates Palgrave, M. - revised & updated). 2002. Trees of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Vorster, P. 1996. Encephalartos brevifoliolatus (Zamiaceae): a new species from the Northern Province. South African Journal of Botany 62(1): 61-64.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos brevifoliolatus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41882A10566751. . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.
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