Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos relictus
Species Authority: P.J.H.Hurter

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct in the Wild ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Described from specimens originally collected in the wild, but no longer exists at the type locality and no new populations have been found.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2003 Extinct in the Wild (EW)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species used to occur in a restricted area on the Lebombo mountains in Swaziland at an elevation of 400 to 600 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:0
Lower elevation limit (metres):400
Upper elevation limit (metres):600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Extinct in the wild.
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Grew in dry grassy savanna on hill slopes.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Extinct in the wild due to the impacts of poaching by collectors.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability: Suitable  
0. Root -> 18. Unknown
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Past, Likely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Hurter, P.J.H. 2001. Encephalartos relictus (Zamiaceae): a newly described species from southern Africa. Bothalia 31: 197-199.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos relictus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41764A10533238. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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