Cephalophus jentinki 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Cephalophus jentinki Thomas, 1892
Common Name(s):
English Jentink's Duiker
French Céphalophe de Jentink
Spanish Duiquero de Jentink
Taxonomic Notes: Monotypic. Analysis of mtDNA showed it was closest to Cephalophus dorsalis and more distantly related to C. spadix and C. silvicultor (van Vuuren and Robinson 2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-01-07
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M. & Mallon, D.
Listed as Endangered as there are estimated to be fewer than 2,500 mature individuals (total population may be <2,000) and a 20% decline over two generations (12.6 years) is estimated due to loss of primary forest cover and intensive poaching and snaring in many parts of the range.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Confined to the western part of the Upper Guinea Forest, from Sierra Leone through Liberia to the Niouniourou river in western Côte d’Ivoire (East 1999, Hoppe-Dominik 2013) and in south-eastern Guinea (Bützler 1994, Brugière 2012).

In Sierra Leone it was positively reported for the first time in 1989 in the Western Area Forest Reserve, the southern part of the Freetown Peninsula, adjacent to the capital city, Freetown (Davies and Birkenhager 1990). Camera trap evidence has shown that it is still present  there (Garriga and McKenna 2014). They have also recently been photographed in Gola Rainforest National Park (Ganas and Lindsell 2010) and are previously reported in the Mokanji Hills, Loma Mountains, and Tingi Hills (Hoppe-Dominik 2013).

Occurred widely in eastern Liberia, along the Sehnkwehn River, the Sinoe river and Buto Oil Palm Plantation (Kranz and Glumac 1983). It is present in Sapo NP (Vogt 2011) and has been recorded in Grebo National Forest and Krahn-Bassa National Forest (Hoppe-Dominik 2013).

In Côte d’Ivoire its stronghold is in Taï National Park in the south-west, and adjacent and the nearby Haut Dodo, Rapid Grah, Cavally-Gouin and Scio Classified Forests (Hoope-Dominik 2013).

Distribution in Guinea is restricted to the far south-east, it has been recorded in Ziama Biosphere Reserve and Diécké Forest (Bützler 1994) and Mont Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (Brugière 2012).
Countries occurrence:
Côte d'Ivoire; Guinea; Liberia; Sierra Leone
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This large duiker appears to be very uncommon/rare throughout its range. East (1999) assumed a mean density of 0.1/km2 and produced a total population estimate of about 3,500, but Wilson (2001) doubted whether even more than 2,000 animals remained. The population trend is downwards except perhaps for a few areas where forest destruction and hunting pressures are lower and where there is effective protection: e.g. Sapo National Park, Gola Rainforest NP, the western section of Taï National Park (Hoppe-Dominik 2013).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:2000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Jentink’s Duiker occurs predominantly in primary high forest, but it may enter adjacent secondary growth, plantations and farmbush (East 1999, Wilson 2001). Its most basic requirements appear to be a diversity of fruiting trees and very dense shelter rather than a specific forest type (Kingdon 1997).

Feeds on many fruits, including those with hard shells, nuts, stems of tree seedlings and may consume cocoa pods, mangoes and palm nuts in plantations (Hoppe-Dominik 2013).
Generation Length (years):6.3

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Hunted for bushmeat; such hunting, especially using cable snares is increasing across West Africa. A market examination of a stand in the east of Taï National Park counted about 3.3% Jentink's Duiker, and Jentink's are poached in both the east and west of the park (Hoppe-Dominik 2013).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to this species are widespread forest destruction (due to, for example, logging and agricultural expansion) and hunting for meat. The influence of hunting on this species is considerable (Caspary et al. 1999, Hoppe-Dominik 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Listed on CITES Appendix I. The long-term survival of Jentink’s Duiker is closely linked to effective protection in the remaining blocks of primary forest, in particular Taï NP, Cavally-Gouin and other forest reserves in Côte d'Ivoire; Sapo NP, Gola, Grebo Krahn-Bassa, and Senkwehn National Forests in Liberia (all of which are proposed national parks); Western Area Forest Reserve and Gola Rainforest NP in Sierra Leone, and Ziama Biosphere Reserve in Guinea. Mount Nimba is also likely to be an important site.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives -> 6.1. Linked enterprises & livelihood alternatives

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%)   
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

Brugière, D. 2012. Identifying priority areas for the conservation of antelopes in the Republic of Guinea using the complementarity approach. Oryx 46: 253-259.

Bützler, W. 1994. Inventaire des mammifères des deux massifs forestiers Ziama et Diécké. Rapport Technique. Annexe III. PROGERFOR, Sérédou, Guinea.

Caspary, H.-U., Prouot, C. and Kone, I. 1999. Aménagement de la faune sauvage dans la région du Parc National de Taï. Dans le contexte chasse, commercialisation et consommation du gibier. San Pedro and Abidjan.

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Ganas, J. and Lindsell, J.A. 2010. Photographic evidence of Jentink's duiker in the Gola Forest reserves, Sierra Leone. African Journal of Ecology 48(2): 566-568.

Garriga, R.M. and McKenna, A. 2012. Survey captures first-ever photos of Endangered Jentink's Duiker in Sierra Leone's Western Area. Gnusletter 30(2): 9-10.

Hoppe-Dominik, B. 2013. Cephalophus jentinki Jentink's Duiker. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, pp. 299-301. Bloomsbury, London, UK.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Jansen van Vuuren, B. and Robinson, T.J. 2001. Retrieval of four adaptive lineages in duiker antelope: Evidence from mitochondrial DNA sequences and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20: 409-425.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Krantz, K.R. and Glumac, E.L. 1983. A preliminary reprot on the status and distribution of Jentink's duiker in Liberia and the Ivory Coast. Florida State Museum, Gainseville, Florida.

Vogt, M. 2011. Results of Apo National Park Bio-Monitioring Porgramme 2007-2009. Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, UK.

Wilson, V.J. 2001. Duikers of Africa: Masters of the African Forest Floor. Directory Publishers, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Cephalophus jentinki. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T4140A50182687. . Downloaded on 19 June 2018.
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