Turbinicarpus swobodae 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Caryophyllales Cactaceae

Scientific Name: Turbinicarpus swobodae
Species Authority: Diers & Esteves
Common Name(s):
Spanish Biznaugita
Taxonomic Source(s): Hunt, D., Taylor, N. and Charles, G. (compilers and editors). 2006. The New Cactus Lexicon. dh Books, Milborne Port, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Accepted as a species by Anderson (2001) and provisionally by Hunt (1999).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(v)+2ab(v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2009-11-19
Assessor(s): Fitz Maurice, W.A., Fitz Maurice, B & Smith, M.
Reviewer(s): Superina, M. & Goettsch, B.K.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hilton-Taylor, C.
Turbinicarpus swobodae is listed as Critically Endangered because it has an extremely narrow range of 1 km², it is known from a single location, the population size is of less than 2,000 individuals, and there is a contining decline due to the impacts of illegal collecting.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2002 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:It occurs near Rayones, Nuevo León, Mexico, over a range of 1 km². It grows at an altitude of about 2,000 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Mexico (Nuevo León)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:1
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):2000
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is estimated that there are less than 2,000 plants.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:2000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
All individuals in one subpopulation:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This cactus grows in semi-desert among steep calcareous rocks.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is grown in cultivation as an ornamental, but it is also collected in the wild.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Illegal collecting is the major threat for this species, although access is difficult (up a steep mountain).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This cactus is listed on CITES Appendix I, but the laws governing imports in the countries of destination need to be enforced. It does not occur in any protected area.

The species is legally protected in Mexico by the national list of species at risk of extinction, NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, where it is listed under the category “threatened” (A; SEMARNAT 2010). 

It is widely propagated. The Cadereyta Regional Botanic Gardens has developed a universal technique to reproduce species of the genus Turbinicarpus (including Gymnocactus), with a rate of 5x/4 weeks and 95% soil adaptation success (E. Sánchez pers. comm. 2011).

Classifications [top]

0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability: Suitable season: resident 
8. Desert -> 8.1. Desert - Hot
suitability: Suitable season: resident major importance:Yes
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Anderson, E.F. 2001. The Cactus Family. Timber Press, Portland.

Hunt, D. 1999. CITES Cactaceae Checklist, 2nd ed. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and International Organization for Succulent Plant Study (IOS).

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Citation: Fitz Maurice, W.A., Fitz Maurice, B & Smith, M. 2013. Turbinicarpus swobodae. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T40999A2949923. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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