Semnopithecus schistaceus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Semnopithecus schistaceus
Species Authority: Hodgson, 1840
Common Name(s):
English Nepal Gray Langur, Central Himalayan Langur
Semnopithecus achilles (Pocock, 1928)
Semnopithecus lania (Elliot, 1909)
Semnopithecus nipalensis Hodgson, 1840
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of S. entellus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Kumar, A., Yongzu, Z. & Molur, S.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Least Concern as the species has a relatively wide distribution, is common, and the threats that it is facing are probably not resulting in a significant population decline.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in the monsoon forests of North Western Frontier province of Pakistan through the high Himalayan elevations (1,500-4,000 m) of India, Nepal and up to the Sankosh river in Bhutan. In China it is found in the Tibetan regions in Bo Qu, Ji Long Zang Bu and the Chumbi valleys.
Countries occurrence:
Bhutan; China; India; Nepal; Pakistan
Lower elevation limit (metres):1500
Upper elevation limit (metres):4000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Global population numbers are unknown, although the species is generally common. It occurs at relatively low densities in Sikkim (India), where it occupies mixed pine forests (A. Kumar pers. comm.). There are four locations of occurrence in China with more than 1,000 individuals (Zhang Yongzu pers. comm.).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits subtropical to temperate broadleaved forest, pine forest, riparian, montane forest, riverine forest, rocky outcrops, and scrub jungle (Molur et al. 2003). A. Kumar (pers. comm.) has observed this species at 3,500 m, but has reports of its occurrence above this elevation, may be up to 4,000 m. It is diurnal, terrestrial, arboreal, and folivorous.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The taxon, although widely distributed across the Himalayas, is subject to various threats from human interference including logging, habitat loss, fires, human habitations, expansion, developmental activities, encroachment, and war, which makes it susceptible to declines in areas subject to such threats (Molur et al. 2003). Hunting is a threat in China (Zhang Yongzu pers. comm.); this species is used in traditional native “medicine” in Tibet.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed in CITES Appendix I. The species is found in at least 10 protected areas in South Asia: Chail WLS, Changthang WLS, Dachigam NP, Hemis NP, Kanchanjunga NP and Karakoram WLS in India; Langtang NP, Makalu Barun NP and Everest Nature Reserve in Nepal; and Manshi WLS in Pakistan (Molur et al. 2003).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.2. War, civil unrest & military exercises
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Brandon-Jones, D. 2004. A taxonomic revision of the langurs and leaf monkeys (primates: Colobinae) of South Asia. Zoos’ Print Journal 19(8): 1552–1594.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Molur, S., Brandon-Jones, D., Dittus, W., Eudey, A., Kumar, A., Singh, M., Feeroz, M. M., Chalise, M., Priya, P. and Walker, S. 2003. Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Managment Plan Report. Workshop Report, 2003. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.

Citation: Kumar, A., Yongzu, Z. & Molur, S. 2008. Semnopithecus schistaceus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39840A10275563. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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