Abies kawakamii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Abies kawakamii (Hayata) T.Itô
Common Name(s):
English Taiwan Fir
Abies mariesii Mast. var. kawakamii Hayata
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-02-23
Assessor(s): Thomas, P., Liao, W. & Yang, Y.
Reviewer(s): Farjon, A. & Gardner, M.
Abies kawakamii has a limited extent of occurrence and area of occupancy that are within the thresholds for Endangered under B1 and B2 criteria. Subpopulations could be considered severely fragmented and there are between five and ten locations when fire is considered as the main potential threat. However, as there is currently no evidence of a continuing decline, an assessment of Near Threatened is appropriate.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:A high mountain species, occurring between 2,400 m and 3,800 m a.s.l. in the central high mountains of Taiwan, Province of China. The extent of occurrence is approximately 2,900 km2 while the actual area of Abies dominated forest is estimated to be 20,000 ha (Shih et al. 2007). It is known from seven locations.
Countries occurrence:
Taiwan, Province of China
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:792
Number of Locations:7
Lower elevation limit (metres):2400
Upper elevation limit (metres):3800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:At elevations above 3,000 m this species is the dominant tree and can form large stands.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Grows on montane slopes in grey brown podzolized soils and also on mountain yellow earth, both acid and usually rocky. The climate is temperate, super humid: above humid subtropical foothills the annual precipitation exceeds 4,000 mm, with maxima up to 10,000 mm, making the Taiwanese central high mountains one of the wettest mountain ranges in the world. There are some pure forests on the N and NE slopes at these high elevations (3,200 m to 3,600 m a.s.l.), or the species occurs mixed with scattered Pinus armandii var. mastersiana, Tsuga chinensis var. chinensis, Picea morrisonicola, and with Juniperus squamata var. morrisonicola at the upper limit of Abies. At lower elevations the forest becomes progressively more mixed with broad-leaved trees, e.g. Acer insulare, Trochodendron aralioides, Quercus semecarpifolia subsp. glabra, Ilex bioritsensis, and Eurya spp. Other conifers in this belt are Tsuga chinensis var. chinensis, which becomes more abundant than Abies kawakamii between 2,400 m and 3,000 m a.s.l., Pseudotsuga sinensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana, which is more abundant below 2,400 m.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Generation Length (years):25

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The timber of this species was formerly exported to Japan, where it was used for general carpentry. It is little used for this purpose today in Taiwan. This species was introduced to England in 1930 and is occasionally found in arboreta in Europe and North America, but remains uncommon in cultivation.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Logging of this species, which occurred mainly during the period of Japanese occupation (1895-1945), has ceased almost completely and substantial populations now occur within national parks and other reserves. Its limited distribution and occurrence in a mosaic with subalpine bamboo grassland makes it vulnerable to fires that could be caused by much increased tourism. Regeneration after fire can be very slow (Chou and Chen 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Parts of the population of this species occur within protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):61-70
  Area based regional management plan:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:Not Applicable
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.2. Intentional use: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Construction or structural materials
 International : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Chou, W.C. and Chen, M.Y. 2006. Post-fire regeneration on the alpine forests in central Taiwan. In: 3rd International Fire Ecology and Management Congress: Changing Fire Regimes: Context and Consequences November 13-17, 2006.

Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK Available at: http://www.catalogueoflife.org/.

Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Shih, F.L., Hwang, S.Y., Cheng, Y.P., Lee, P.F. and Lin, T.P. 2007. Uniform genetic diversity, low differentiation and neutral evolution characterize contemporary refuge populations of Taiwan Fir (Abies kawakamii, Pinaceae). American Journal of Botany 94(2): 194-202.

Citation: Thomas, P., Liao, W. & Yang, Y. 2013. Abies kawakamii. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T31362A2805686. . Downloaded on 22 June 2018.
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