Meles meles 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Mustelidae

Scientific Name: Meles meles
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Eurasian Badger, European Badger, Badger
French Blaireau Européen
Spanish Tejón
Meles canescens Blanford, 1875
Ursus meles Linnaeus, 1758
Taxonomic Notes: Previously the genus Meles was considered to be monospecific. Recent morphological and genetic studies supported the separation of Meles into three species (Abramov 2002, 2003; Abramov and Puzachenko 2005, 2006). Certain craniological and molecular data suggest that badgers from South-west Asia (here treated as subspecies of M. meles) should be recognised as fourth full species, M. canescens (Del Cerro et al. 2010, Tashima et al. 2011, Abramov and Puzachenko 2013).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-03-03
Assessor(s): Kranz, A., Abramov, A.V., Herrero, J. & Maran, T.
Reviewer(s): Schipper, J. & Duckworth, J.W.
Contributor(s): Tikhonov, A., Conroy, J., Cavallini, P., Fernandes, M., Stubbe, M., Wozencraft, C & Basuony, M.I.
Eurasian Badger is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, large population, occurrence in many protected areas, high densities in anthropogenic habitats in large parts of its range, and because it is highly unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing even as Near Threatened.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Eurasian Badger is widespread throughout Europe west of the River Volga up to the Middle Volga (Russia; both sides of Volga in Nizhnii Novgorod province), the Caucasus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, the southern mountains of Middle Asia (Kopet Dagh Mountains, the South and West Tien Shan Mountains), and the islands of Crete, Rhodes, Ireland, and Britain (Abramov and Puzachenko 2005, Muñoz et al. 2007). Israel holds the southernmost confirmed resident distribution in this region of the range: the southernmost record in Israel is from central Arava (Werner 2012). It has also been recorded at one location in north Sinai, Egypt, where it was found in 2005, perhaps as a wanderer from across the border with Israel (Basuony et al. 2010, M.I. Basuony pers. comm. 2015); there are records from this area on the Israel side of the border, which is cultivated (N. Werner pers. comm. 2014). The closely related Asian Badger M. leucurus occurs east of the River Volga. Eurasian Badger is distributed in the west and north districts of Kirov province, with the east and south of this province inhabited by Asian Badger. The sympatric zone between these species is the country between the Volga and Kama rivers (Abramov et al. 2003). To the east of the Caspian Sea, the ranges of 'the South-west Asian badger' M. meles canescens and M. leucurus are separated by arid desert regions (the Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum deserts). The contact zone between the two badger species in Central Asia is located in the western Tien-Shan Mountains (Abramov and Puzachenko 2007). Meles m. canescens occurs in the foothills of western Tien-Shan (Karzhantau, Ugam, Chatkal, Kuraminsky and Turkestan ridges), and, probably, in north-western Xingiang, China. In the sympatric zone, in south-eastern Uzbekistan, the two forms substantially differ in their habitat use: M. m. canescens occupies mountain biotopes whereas M. leucurus inhabits plains and semi-deserts (A. V. Abramov pers. comm. 2014).

It occurs from sea level to 3,300 m in Pamir Mountains, and up to 2,500 m in the Caucasus (A.V. Abramov pers. comm. 20006).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt (Sinai); Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:>20,000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):NoExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):3300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Eurasian Badger is abundant across much of its range. Densities have increased in Europe during recent decades (Holmala and Kauhala 2006), in central Europe because of the reduction of rabies. In western Ukraine the population has increased. In Russia, 30,000 individuals were estimated in 1990 (A. V. Abramov pers. comm. 2006). In the United Kingdom (1980s-1990s) there was a 77% increase in the total population size. There are large differences in population densities across its range; in Finland, near the northern limit of its distribution, density is low, at about 2 to 2.5 individuals per 10 km² (Kauhala in litt. 2006). There are only a few records from Iran (Moqanaki et al. 2010). In Israel it is the second most-sighted small carnivore (Werner 2012).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:In Europe Eurasian Badger prefers deciduous woods with clearings, or open pastureland with small patches of woodland. It is also found in mixed and coniferous woodland, scrub, suburban areas and urban parks. In south-east Uzbekistan, where M. m. canescens and M. leucurus are sympatric, the two forms differ substantially in their biotope preferences: M. m. canescens occupies mountain biotopes whereas M. leucurus inhabits plains and semi-deserts (A. V. Abramov pers. comm. 2014). 

It is an opportunistic forager with an omnivorous diet, including fruit, nuts, bulbs, tubers, acorns, and cereal crops. It also consumes a variety of invertebrates (especially earthworms), the contents of wasp and bee nests, birds' eggs, carrion, and live vertebrate prey such as hedgehogs, moles, and rabbits. In the northern parts of its range it hibernates during winter. Its home range in Finland is very large, with a mean of about 15 km² (Kauhala et al. 2006), and its social system is peculiar, with large overlapping home ranges without any communal den (Kauhala in litt. 2006). In Finland, it does not reproduce every year, and the litter size is small (Kauhala et al. 2006).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Generation Length (years):5.9
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: For information on use and trade, see under Threats.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Eurasian Badger has declined in some agricultural areas, attributed to land-use changes causing a loss of suitable habitat (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999). It is sometimes persecuted as a pest. In central Europe the population was formerly severely reduced by rabies, but that threat has now decreased with rabies controls. In the United Kingdom the species is associated with bovine TB, which has lead to local trials to remove it. During hunting for Red Fox Vulpe vulpes or (introduced) Northern Raccoon Procyon lotor, Eurasian Badger is often killed as by-catch. In the Russian Federation the species is sometimes hunted for meat and fat, used as medicine. In Germany, it is hunted annually. It is possible that the introduced Raccoon Dog Nyctereutes procyonoides competes with Eurasian Badger, and a project in Finland is looking into this possible threat. It was initiated by the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, started in 2006 and should continue for about four years (Kauhala in litt. 2006). Badgers are heavily hunted in Finland; the annual harvest has increased in recent years, being about 10,000 badgers by 2006(Kauhala in litt. 2006). The hunting season in Finland is the whole year, with the exception of females with young being protected in May, June and July (Kauhala in litt. 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Eurasian Badger is listed on Appendix III of the Bern Convention (Mitchell-Jones et al. 1999). It is also listed on Schedule 6 of the United Kingdom Wildlife and Countryside Act and listed under the Protection of Badgers Act. In Albania it is considered Endangered. The species is found in many protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
3. Shrubland -> 3.3. Shrubland - Boreal
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
8. Desert -> 8.3. Desert - Cold
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.2. Unintentional effects (species is not the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Abramov, A. V. 2002. Variation of the baculum structure of the Palaearctic badger (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Meles). Russian Journal of Theriology 1: 57-60.

Abramov, A. V. 2003. The head colour pattern of the Eurasian badgers (Mustelidae, Meles). Small Carnivore Conservation 29: 5-7.

Abramov, A. V. and Puzachenko, A. Y. 2005. Sexual dimorphism of craniological characters in Eurasian badgers, Meles spp. (Carnivora, Mustelidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 244: 11-29.

Abramov, A.V. and Puzachenko, A.Y. 2005. Sexual dimorphism of craniological characters in Eurasian badgers, Meles spp. (Carnivora, Mustelidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 244: 11-29.

Abramov, A. V. and Puzachenko, A. Y. 2006. Geographical variability of skull and taxonomy of Eurasian badgers (Mustelidae, Meles). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 85: 641-655.

Abramov, A.V. and Puzachenko, A.Y. 2007. Possible hybridization between Meles meles and M. leucurus (Carnivora, Mustelidae) in Western Tien Shan. In: V.V. Rozhnov and F.A. Tembotova (eds), Mammals of Mountain Territories, pp. 4–7. KMK Sci. Press, Moscow, Russia.

Abramov, A.V. and Puzachenko, A.Y. 2013. The taxonomic status of badgers (Mammalia, Mustelidae) from southwest Asia based on cranial morphometrics, with the rediscription of Meles canescens. Zootaxa 3681: 44–58.

Basuony, M.I., Gilbert, F. and Zalat, S. 2010. Mammals of Egypt. Atlas, red data listing and conservation. Alexandria Library and CULTNET Publishers.

Battersby, J. 2005. UK Mammals: Species Status and Population Trends. First Report by the Tracking Mammals Partnership. JNCC / The Tracking Mammals Partnership.

Del Cerro, I., Ferrando, A., Marmi, J., Chashchin, P., Taberlet, P. and Bosch, M. 2010. Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies provide evidence for four species of Eurasian badgers (Carnivora). Zoologica Scripta 39: 415–425.

Holmala, K. and Kauhala, K. 2006. Ecology of wildlife rabies in Europe. Mammal Review 36(1): 17-36.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Kauhala, K., Holmala, K., Lammers, W. and Schregel, J. 2006. Home ranges and densities of medium-sized carnivores in south-east Finland, with special reference to rabies spread. Acta Theriologica 51(1): 1-13.

Mitchell-Jones, A.J., Amori, G., Bogdanowicz, W., Kryštufek, B., Rejinders, P.J.H., Spitzenberger, F., Stubbe, M., Thissen, J.B.M., Vohralík, J. and Zima, J. (eds). 1999. Atlas of European mammals. Academic Press, London, U.K.

Muñoz, L.J.P., Gisbert, J. and Gutiérrez, J.C.B. 2007. Atlas y libro rojo de los mamíferos terrestres de España. Organismo autónomo parques nacionales. Dirección general para la biodiversidad.

Tashima, S., Kaneko, Y., Anezaki, T., Baba, M., Yachimori, S., Abramov, A.V., Saveljev, A.P. and Masuda, R. 2011. Phylogeographic sympatry and isolation of the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora): implication for an alternative analysis using maternally as well as paternally inherited genes. Zoological Science 28: 293–303.

Citation: Kranz, A., Abramov, A.V., Herrero, J. & Maran, T. 2016. Meles meles. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T29673A45203002. . Downloaded on 30 July 2016.
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