Stenoderma rufum 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_onStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Phyllostomidae

Scientific Name: Stenoderma rufum
Species Authority: Desmarest, 1820
Common Name(s):
English Red Fruit Bat

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-12-18
Assessor(s): Rodriguez Duran, A.
Reviewer(s): Solari, S.
Contributor(s): Dávalos, L.
Justification:
This species is listed as Near Threatened based on B1ab(iii) as its species extent of occurrence (EOO) is sligthly over 20,000 km2, and it is suspected to occur all through the island of Puerto Rico, although always in low density, resulting in a total of 5 locations (at least). At the few places thoroughly studied, its abundance seems to be declining due to habitat loss (human disturbance from recreational activities and tropical hurricanes).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from Puerto Rico (main island and Vieques), and the US Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix; Simmons 2005, Kwiecinski and Coles 2007). The Virgin Islands of Vieques, Culebra, St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Anegada, and associated smaller cays, are collectively are known as the Northern Virgin Islands, whereas St. Croix and its smaller cays form the Southern Virgin Islands.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Puerto Rico; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Additional data:
Number of Locations:5
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is rare in the US Virgin Islands (Gannon et al. 2005). In Puerto Rico it is uncommon (Gannon et al. 2005); it appears to be present throughout the island but, where found, population density is low. This bat shows a relatively small home range (mean = 2.1 ha) and exhibits high site fidelity for at least several months during the rainy season (Gannon and Willig 1994).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Extreme fluctuations:UnknownPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

The habitat in which this species occurs often is dry arborescent vegetation (Genoways and Baker 1972). This species is poorly known. Only the subpopulation in the Luquillo Mountains has been studied extensively, and almost all knowledge of its natural history comes from animals living there. It is primarily a frugivore; the most commonly eaten fruits are from the trumpet tree, bullet-wood and sierra palm, and there is no evidence that it eats figs. It is solitary and roosts among the leaves of the forest canopy. This bat frequently changes its roosting location, and sites are seldom occupied more than once. Home range is small, about 2.5 hectares on average. Pregnant females have been captured on Puerto Rico in January, March, June, July and August, and lactating bats are known from March, May, June and July (Gannon et al. 2005).

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not used.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by human disturbance from recreational activities, as well as because of tropical hurricanes (Gannon and Willig 1994). The dry forest in these small Caribbean islands are strongly dependent on seasonal precipitation, and extreme changes in weather might cause a reduction in forests extent, and possibly a local extirpation of bat populations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Stenoderma rufum is commonly found in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (part of the El Yunque NF) in northeastern Puerto Rico; at one time this species represented approximately 25% of the bats captured in that forest’s tabonuco section.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.4. Storms & flooding
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

Bibliography [top]

Gannon, M. R., and M. R. Willig. 1994. The Effects of Hurricane Hugo on Bats of the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico. Biotropica 26(3): 320-331.

Gannon, M.R., Kurta, A., Rodriguez-Duran, A. and Willig, M.R. 2005. Bats of Puerto Rico. Texas Tech University Press.

Genoways, H.H. and Baker, R.J. 1972. Stenoderma rufum. Mammalian Species 18: 1-4.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Kwiecinski, G. G., and W. C. Coles. 2007. Presence of Stenoderma rufum beyond the Puerto Rican bank. Occasional Papers, Museum of Texas Tech University 266: 1-9.

Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.


Citation: Rodriguez Duran, A. 2016. Stenoderma rufum. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T20743A22065638. . Downloaded on 25 September 2016.
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