Saiga tatarica 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Saiga tatarica (Linnaeus, 1766)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Saiga, Mongolian Saiga, Saiga Antelope
French Saïga
Spanish Antílope Saiga
Taxonomic Notes: Saiga tatarica is the only species in the genus Saiga. Although there is little geographical variation, two subspecies are recognized: Saiga tatarica tatarica (the nominate subspecies, to which the majority of the global population belong), and Saiga tatarica mongolica (endemic to western Mongolia). Grubb (2005) recognized the Pleistocene mammoth-steppe Saiga as a distinct species S. borealis, including the living subspecies mongolica.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2acd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Mallon, D.P.
Reviewer(s): Milner-Gulland, E.J. & Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority)
The population has shown an observed decline of over 80% over the last 10 years and the decline is continuing. Severely skewed sex ratios are leading to reproductive collapse.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Saiga tatarica inhabited the steppes and semi-desert regions of south-eastern Europe and Central Asia from the Precaspian steppes to Mongolia and western China. Currently, there is one population in Russia (Kalmykia) and three in Kazakhstan, although in winter some animals reach Uzbekistan and even northern Turkmenistan. A distinctive subspecies occurs in western Mongolia (the nominate subspecies formerly occurred in the Dzungarian Gobi of south-western Mongolia, but has not been seen in 40 years). Saiga became extinct in China by the 1960s, and in Ukraine in the 18th century.
Countries occurrence:
Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Russian Federation; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
Regionally extinct:
China; Moldova; Poland; Ukraine
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Historically, this was a common species in Eurasian steppes and semi-deserts. From information provided in recent references it appears that between 1991 and 1994, the global population of S. tatarica was relatively stable at just under one million animals, the majority of which were in Kazakhstan (approximately 810,00–825,000) (Bekenov et al. 1998, Lushchekina et al. 1999, Sokolov and Zhirnov 1998). However, the population in Kazakhstan had fallen to around 570,000 animals by 1998 (A.B. Bekenov and Iu. A. Grachev, in litt. to ASG).

In European Russia (Kalmykia), the Saiga population steeply declined after land reclamation of the Volga basin started, but the species remained numerous within the distribution area. In the 1970s the population recovered to ca.700,000–800,000 as a result of hunting regulation. However, since then the population has drastically declined. In 1980 there were an estimated 380,000 individuals, in 1996 there were 196,000, and by 2000 just 26,000 (see Milner-Gulland et al. 2001 for annual survey results for 1980–2000). At present there are no more than 18,000 animals in Kalmykia. Sex ratio is severely skewed; the proportion of males varies from 1 to 10% in different years.

The population of Mongolian Saiga increased from ca. 3,000 in 1998, to 5,200 in 2000 helped by favourable climatic conditions and active conservation measures by WWF–Mongolia. Numbers fell between 2000 and 2002 as a result of severe winters and summer drought. They continued to decline in 2002–2003, mainly because of poaching. Numbers were ca. 1,020 in 2003, and 750 in January 2004 (J. Chimeg, in litt.).

In total, the global population of Saiga is now estimated at ca.50,000, down from 1,250,000 in the mid-1970s, with most animals found in Kazakhstan.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:18000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The Saiga is a nomadic herding species that generally inhabits the open dry steppe grasslands and semi-arid deserts of Central Asia. Bekenov et al. (1998) described the typical habitat as flat open areas covered with low-growing vegetation, allowing animals to run quickly; areas of broken terrain or dense cover are generally avoided, but animals may stray into these out of necessity.

The Saiga is a migratory species with widely separated summer (northern) and winter (southern) ranges. The species lives in large herds, usually up to thousand individuals. It has a high rate of reproduction and recruitment. In years with a favourable climate the population can increase by up to 60% in a single year (Chan et al. 1995). Very few animals in a population are more than 3.5 years old, indicating that the population is almost completely renewed after four years (Bekenov et al. 1998).
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Uncontrolled illegal hunting for horns (male horns are exported for the traditional Chinese medicine trade) and meat since the break-up of the former USSR has led to the catastrophic fall in numbers. Selective hunting of young males and subsequent distortion of the sex ratio has affected reproduction: recent research shows that heavily skewed sex ratios are resulting in reproductive collapse (Milner-Gulland et al. 2003). A second significant threat is the destruction of key habitats and traditional migration routes. Agricultural abandonment is a problem in some areas; cattle grazing formerly maintained the grassy species but land abandonment allows another species (Stippa sp.) to encroach, which the Saiga cannot eat. The recent increase in steppe fires is a further cause for concern. Severe winters can cause mass mortality.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Legislation protecting Saiga exists at national level, but increased enforcement, and especially external funding for anti-poaching measures and linked rural development are urgently needed. Some protected areas exist within Saiga range but distance between summer/winter ranges of the various populations hinders full protected area coverage. Extension of already existing and new protected areas is under discussion by the Russian Federation government. Some research is being carried out on numbers, range and behaviour. Total prohibition of saiga meat and horn trade as well as temporary removal of saiga from the hunting animals list have been proposed as key conservation measures.

The Mongolian Saiga has been legally protected since 1930. Two protected areas, Sharga NR (286,900 ha) and Mankhan NR (30,000 ha), were designated in 1993 to protect most of the remaining areas of occurrence.

Listed on CITES Appendix II.

Classifications [top]

4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
8. Desert -> 8.2. Desert - Temperate
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level
6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives -> 6.1. Linked enterprises & livelihood alternatives

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.3. Temperature extremes
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Bekenov, A. B., Grachevand, A. and Milner-Gulland, E. J. 1998. The ecology and management of the Saiga antelope in Kazakhstan. Mammal Review 28(1): 1-52.

Chan, S., Maksimuk, A. V. and Zhirnov, L. V. (eds). 1995. From steppe to store: the trade in saiga antelope horn. pp. 47 pp.. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder (ed.), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Kuznetsov, V. and Lushchekina, A. 2002. Kalmyk saiga is on the verge of catastrophe [Russian title: Калмыцкий сайгак на грани катастрофы]. Stepnoy bulluten 11.

Lhagvasuren, B., Dulamtseren, S. and Amgalan, L. 2001. Mongolia. In: D. P. Mallon and S. C. Kingswood (eds), Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans, pp. 159-167. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Lushchekina, A. A., Dulamtseren, S., Amgalan, L. and Neronov, M. 1999. The status and prospects for conservation of the Mongolian saiga Saiga tatarica mongolica.

Mallon, D. P. and Kingswood, S. C. 2001. Chapter 41. Regional Action Plan for Antelope Conservation. In: D. P. Mallon and S. C. Kingswood (eds), Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans, pp. 231-243. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Mallon, D.P. and Kingswood, S.C. 2001. Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Milner-Gulland, E. J., Bukreeva, O. M., Coulson, T., Lushchekina, A. A., Kholodova, M. V., Bekenov, A. B. and Grachev, Iu. A. 2003. Reproductive collapse in saiga antelope harems. Nature 422: 135.

Milner-Gulland, E. J., Kholodova, M. V., Bekenov, A., Bukreeva, O. M., Grachev, I. A., Amgalan, L. and Lushchekina, A. A. 2001. Dramatic declines in saiga antelope populations. Oryx 35(4): 340-345.

Sokolov, V. E. and Zhirnov, L. V. 1998. The Saiga antelope, phylogeny, systematics, ecology, conservation and use. Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Zahler, P. 2004. Recent Management and Conservation Initiatives for Mongolian Gazelle, Mongolian Saiga Antelope, and Gobi Bear. Mongolian Journal of Biological Sciences 2(2): 47-49.

Zahler, P., Lkhagvasuren, B., Reading, R.P., Wingard, G.J., Amgalanbaatar, S., Gombobaatar, S., Barton, N. and Onon, Yo. 2004. Illegal and Unsustainable Wildlife Hunting and Trade in Mongolia. Mongolian Journal of Biological Sciences 2(1): 23-31.

Citation: Mallon, D.P. 2008. Saiga tatarica. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T19832A9021682. . Downloaded on 25 June 2018.
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