Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus achatinus
Species Authority: Gmelin, 1791
Conus barbara Brazier, 1898
Conus contusus Reeve, 1848
Conus frostiana Brazier, 1898
Conus monachus Linnaeus, 1758
Conus nebulosus Gmelin, 1791
Conus ranunculus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
Conus vinctus A. Adams, 1855
Taxonomic Notes: Some references in the literature may refer to C. monachus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-10-26
Assessor(s): Kohn, A.
Reviewer(s): Peters, H. & Poppe, G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Coggan, A., Peters, H. & Harwell, H.
This species occurs in the Indo-Pacific region, ranging from Mozambique and Tanzania in the west to the Philippines, Solomon Islands and New Caledonia in the east. As a wide ranging, relatively common species with no obvious threats this has been assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in the Indo-Pacific region, ranging from Mozambique and Tanzania in the west to the Philippines, Solomon Islands and New Caledonia in the east. It is not present in the Red Sea. (Röckel et al. 1995). The EOO, AOO and number of locations exceed the thresholds for criteria B1 and B2.
Countries occurrence:
Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia); Bangladesh; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Disputed Territory; India; Indonesia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mozambique; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Vanuatu; Viet Nam
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:Unknown
Lower depth limit (metres):20
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is relatively common but not locally abundant (G.T. Poppe pers. comm. 2011).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:UnknownPopulation severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in both intertidal and subtidal areas up to a depth of 20 m. It is found in sand and mud under rocks, coral rubble and under coral. It also occurs in mixed colonies with C. monachus in parts of New Britain. Adults can grow to a maximum length of 82 mm, although they will typically be smaller than this (commonly to 50-68 mm) (Röckel et al. 1995).  It has the largest eggs of any known Indo-Pacific species (has non-planktonic development). However, it is fairly widely distributed.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: In common with all Conus spp this species is traded for the shell collector market. It is also gathered for the local tourist market and by tourists visiting the country. There are no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed, however shells are sold in the low to mid range and are plentiful in the market (Rice 2007).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no known threats to this species at present.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known current conservation measures for this species. Its distribution probably overlaps with some marine protected areas.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.3. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.4. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.5. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.6. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Muddy
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.6. Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

♦  Handicrafts, jewellery, etc.
 International : ✓ 

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Discover Life. 2011. Conus achatinus Gmelin, 1791. Available at: (Accessed: 30/03).

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Rice, T. 2007. A Catalog of Dealers' Prices for Shells: Marine, Land and Freshwater. Sea and Shore Publications.

Röckel, D., Korn, W. & Kohn, A.J. 1995. Manual of the Living Conidae, Vol 1. Verlag Christa Hemmen.

Citation: Kohn, A. 2013. Conus achatinus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T192727A2150613. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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