Betta splendens 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Osphronemidae

Scientific Name: Betta splendens
Species Authority: Regan, 1910
Common Name(s):
English Siamese Fighting Fish
Synonym(s):
Betta splendens ssp. abbreviata Blanc 1963
Micracanthus marchei Sauvage 1879
Taxonomic Notes:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2ace ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-02-25
Assessor(s): Vidthayanon, C.
Reviewer(s): Rainboth, W., Ng, H.H. & Allen, D.
Justification:
This species is threatened by habitat degradation. Habitats across most of its range have been converted into intensive farmland, developed, or polluted, especially in central Thailand which is its centre of population. Genetic erosion from escaped farmed stock into wild habitats is a secondary threat.

Currently its exact extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are poorly known, but is locally uncommon in its suitable habitats. The species is assessed as Vulnerable due to a suspected population decline of at least 30% across its range, and a declining area and extent of occurrence.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to Thailand, from the Mae Khlong to Chao Phraya basins, the eastern slope of the Cardamom mountains, and from the Isthmus of Kra.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Thailand
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):5
Upper elevation limit (metres):190
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Locally uncommon throughout its range, suffered much decline due to habitat degradation and pollution.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Inhabits intact marshlands in shallow zones, adaptive to paddyfields.
Systems:Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Popular in the aquarium trade and bred in many domestic variations for national and international markets, and game fighting.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat degradation is the main threat to the species, and most of its suitable lowland habitat has been converted into intensive farmland and urban areas, or polluted, especially in central Thailand. Genetic erosion is a secondary threat from escaped farmed stock into wild habitats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Captive breeding from wild populations is strongly recommended. Management of known habitats is also needed.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.3. Wetlands (inland) - Shrub Dominated Wetlands
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Unknown  
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.3. Work & other activities
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.3. Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Causing/Could cause fluctuations ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.3. Introduced genetic material
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.5. Inbreeding

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *


♦  Other (free text)
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Smith, H.M. 1945. The fresh-water fishes of Siam, or Thailand. United States Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.

Vidthayanon. 2004. Handbook of freshwater fishes of Thailand. Sarakadee, Bangkok.

Vidthayanon, C. 2005. Thailand Red Data: Fishes. Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok.


Citation: Vidthayanon, C. 2011. Betta splendens. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T180889A7653828. . Downloaded on 30 June 2016.
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