Kandelia obovata 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Rhizophorales Rhizophoraceae

Scientific Name: Kandelia obovata
Species Authority: Sheue, H.Y.Liu & J.Yong
Taxonomic Notes: This species was formally considered part of K. candel but is now considered a distinct species (Sheue et al. 2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-03-07
Assessor(s): Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)
This species is common within a relatively restricted range. There has been an estimated 29% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. However, it is easily propogated, is a hardy species, and its range is increasing in Japan. This species is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in southern Viet Nam, China, Taiwan, Japan, and only on Natuna Islands in Indonesia. Its range may also extend to the extreme north of Philippines, although this needs to be confirmed. This species distribution is increasing to the north in Japan (at least present now to 35 degrees N).
Countries occurrence:
China; Indonesia; Japan; Taiwan, Province of China; Viet Nam
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is common within its range.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in the downstream estuarine zone in the lower intertidal region (Robertson and Alongi 1992). This species is easily propagated, and coppices. It is considered a hardy species, although is relatively slow-growing (5 years to grow 1.5 m). This species generally grows up to about 3 meters.
Systems:Terrestrial; Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is harvested for firewood and is used for other purposes given its highly valued "hard wood".

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 29% decline in mangrove areas across China, Japan countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).

All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.

In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. This is a protected species in Taiwan. In Japan, this species has been planted for at least the past 100 years. In Viet Nam, this species is planted as protection from coastal erosion and storms.

Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.

Classifications [top]

12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.7. Marine Intertidal - Mangrove Submerged Roots
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:Yes
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.4. Marine & freshwater aquaculture -> 2.4.3. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Fuels
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Construction or structural materials
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Other household goods
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Duke, N.C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.

Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.

FAO. 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).

Sheue, C.-R., Liu, H.-Y. and Yong, J.W.H. 2003. Kandelia obovata (Rhizophoraceae), a new mangrove species from Eastern Asia. Taxon 52(2): 287.

Citation: Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T. 2010. Kandelia obovata. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T178855A7628562. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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