Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_onStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae

Scientific Name: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
Species Authority: (Valenciennes, 1844)
Synonym(s):
Leuciscus molitrix Valenciennes, 1844

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-01-20
Assessor(s): Zhao, H.
Reviewer(s): Allen, D.J., Cui, K., Zhou, W. & Chen, X.-Y.
Contributor(s): Kottelat, M.
Justification:
In its natural range, the species has been impacted by dams, pollution, and overfishing. Dams have greatly impacted the species reproductive success. The Amur populations are thought not to have yet been impacted (M. Kottelat pers. comm. 2011), however populations in China have declined greatly as a result of the widespread development of dams. Population declines in the natural population have been significant in the Chinese parts of its range.

It is assessed as Near Threatened due the the scale of wild population decline in China, as it is suspected to be close to meeting a threatened category under population decline (category A2). Monitoring of population trends and reproductive success in the wild is needed.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This a widespread species throughout China from Heilongjiang, Yangtze and Pearl River basins. Also recorded in eastern Russia (Amur River) and from Mongolia. Introduced around the world for aquaculture and control of algal blooms. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
China (Anhui, Fujian, Hainan, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanxi); Mongolia; Russian Federation
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The natural population of the species has declined in its native range in China, however it has been widely introduced throughout China and to other countries, including Malaysia.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Feeds on phytoplankton and zooplankton. In its natural range, it migrates upstream to breed; egg and larva float downstream to floodplain zones. An active species well known for its habit of leaping clear of the water when disturbed. Swims just beneath the water surface. Larvae and small juveniles feed on zooplankton; from 15 mm Standard length (SL) only feeds on phytoplankton. Very sensitive to low temperature (below 5°C) and oxygen deficit.

Dams have greatly impacted the species reproductive success. The Amur populations are thought not to have yet been impacted (M. Kottelat pers. comm. 2011), however populations in China have declined greatly as a result of the widespread development of dams.
Systems:Freshwater
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

Utilized fresh for human consumption and also introduced to many countries where its ability to clean reservoirs and other waters of clogging algae is appreciated even more than its food value. It is among three or four species of cyprinids whose world production in aquaculture exceeds one million tons per year

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In its natural range, the species has been impacted by dams, pollution, and overfishing. Dams and pollution destroy the habitat ecology, reproductive success. Dams have greatly impacted the species reproductive success. The Amur populations are thought not to have yet been impacted (M. Kottelat pers. comm. 2011), however populations in China have declined greatly as a result of the widespread development of dams. Population declines in the natural population have been significant in the Chinese parts of its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The wild population should be monitored.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability:Unknown  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
suitability:Unknown  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.2. Intentional use: (large scale)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.10. Large dams
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.11. Dams (size unknown)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Ji, C.-H., Gu, J.-J., Mao, R.-X., Zhu, X.-P. and Sun, X.-W. 2009. Analysis of genetic diversity among wild silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) populations in the Yangtze,Heilongjiang and Pearl Rivers using microsatellite markers. Journal of Fisheries of China.

Skelton, P.H. 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers.


Citation: Zhao, H. 2011. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T166081A6168056. . Downloaded on 28 August 2016.
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