Holacanthus passer 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Pomacanthidae

Scientific Name: Holacanthus passer Valenciennes, 1846
Common Name(s):
English King Angelfish
French Demoiselle royale
Spanish Angel real, Ángel rey, Bandera, Pez ángel, Pez bandera

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-08
Assessor(s): Pyle, R., Allen, G., Myers, R., Zapata, F., Robertson, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T.
Reviewer(s): Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.
This species is considered to be Least Concern, because it is widespread in the eastern Pacific, it is common in many parts of its range, there are not considered to be any major threats, and there are no indications of ongoing population declines.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This eastern Pacific species is distributed from the Gulf of California in the north to coastal Peru in the south. Populations are present at the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador), the Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico), Malpelo Island (Colombia), and Cocos Island (Costa Rica). It is found from 1-80 m in depth.
Countries occurrence:
Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador (Galápagos); El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):80
Upper depth limit (metres):1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is common throughout much of its range. This species was studied in different sites in the Galapagos Archipelago, being the second most abundant species in that region, with an overall mean abundance of 13.2 individuals/500 m2 (Edgar et al. 2004). This fish was studied in the Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica (Dominici-Arosemena et al. 2005) with a density of 0.01 ±0.01 ind./m2. This low density may be due to great exploitation of this fish for aquaria activity. At Gulf Dulce, Costa Rica, it had a density of 0.002 ±0.009 ind./m2, and a relative abundance of 0.066% (Figueroa 2001). Within a five-site study survey at Catalinas Islands this fish could be observed in all sites, with an overall observations of 92 times (Espinoza and Salas 2005). According to Aburto-Oropeza and Balart (2001), H. passer is a dominant species at Los Islotes, Gulf of California, with an occurrence frequency higher than 80%. In Cabo Pulmo, Mexico, this fish was considered common — 1-5% of the overall abundance registered — with a relative frequency between 75-100% (Villarreal-Cavazos et al. 2000). In Bahía de Navidad, Jalisco, still in México, this fish was captured just once within 12 (one each month) field trips throughout a year (Rojo-Vázquez et al. 2001). A survey at Gorgona Island coral reefs, Colombia (Rubio 1986), showed that this fish seems to be abundant in coralline bottoms, frequent in sandy substrata while occasional in rocky bottoms and tide-pools. Zapata and Morales (1997), also in the same place, recorded a density of 2.128 ±1.511 ind./10 m2, with an observational frequency of 98.8%.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is typically found over rocky areas with clear water (Allen 1980). It feeds on sessile invertebrates, algae and plankton but is more specialised to feed on sponges. Females are more territorial and form pair bonds with the males. The adults clean parasites from sharks (R. Pyle pers. comm. 2009).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is occasionally exported through the aquarium trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

There are no major threats to this species. It is collected for the aquarium trade (Fenner 1995, Dominici-Arosemena et al. 2005); however, this is not thought to be major threat to the global population. This species was affected by El Niño during the 1997/98 event, with a temporary population decline of more than 50%, but had returned to pre-El Niño numbers by 2000.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

There are no known conservation measures in place for this species. However, this species' distribution falls partially into a number of marine protected areas and populations are believed to be present in these.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.5. Other impacts
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Aburto-Oropeza, O. and Balart, E.F. 2001. Community structure of reef fish in several habitats of a rocky reef in the Gulf of California. Marine Ecology 22(4): 283-305.

Allen, G.R. 1980. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Wiley, New York.

Allen, G.R., Steene, R. and Allen, M. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research.

Béarez, P. 1996. Lista de los peces marinos del Ecuador continental. Revista de Biología Tropical 44: 731-741.

Dominici-Arosemena, A. and Wolff, M. 2006. Reef fish community structure in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Panamá): living on a relatively stable rocky reef environment. Helgoland Marine Research 60: 287-305.

Dominici-Arosemena, A., Brugnoli-Olivera, E., Cortés Núñez, J., Molina-Urena, H. and Quesada-Alpizar, M. 2005. Community structure of eastern Pacific reef fishes (Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica). Tecnociencia 7(2): 19-41.

Edgar, G.J., Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C. 2004. Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro‐invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago. Journal of Biogeography 31(7): 1107-1124.

Endoh, K. 2007. Angelfishes of the World. Two Little Fishies, Inc., Miami Gardens, Florida.

Espinoza, M. and Salas, E. 2005. Estructura de las comunidades de peces de arrecife en las islas Catalinas y Playa Ocotal, Pacífico Norte de Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical 53: 523-536.

Figueroa, R.R. 2001. Caracterización de la ictiofauna de los sustratos duros de la parte interna del Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Universidad de Costa Rica.

Grove, J.S. and Lavenberg, R.J. 1997. The fishes of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press, Stanford, USA.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Jiménez Prado, P. and Béarez, P. 2004. Peces Marinos del Ecuador continental. Tomo 2: Guía de Especies / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador. Volume 2: Species Guide. SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA.

Krupp, F. and Schneider, W. 1995. Pomacanthidae. Angeles. In: W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds), Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols., pp. 1388-1391. FAO, Rome.

Rojo-Vázquez, J.A., Aguilar-Palomino, B., Galván-Piña, V.H., Godínez-Domínguez, E., Hernández-Vazquez, S., Ruiz-Ramírez, S. and Lucano-Ramírez, G. 2001. Ictiofauna de la pesquería ribereña en Bahía de Navidad, Jalisco, México asociada al evento El Niño 1997-1998. Revista de Biología Tropical 49: 915-929.

Rubio, E.A. 1986. Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla Gorgona, Pacífico colombiano. Boletín Ecotrópica 13: 86-112.

Thomson, D.A. 1987. Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Villarreal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O. 2000. Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, Mexico: Lista sistematica y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía. Revista de Biologia Tropical 48(2-3): 413-424.

Zapata, F.A. and Morales, Y.A. 1997. Spatial and temporal patterns of fish diversity in coral reef at Gorgona Island, Colombia. 8th International Coral Reef Symposium: 1029-1034. Panama.

Citation: Pyle, R., Allen, G., Myers, R., Zapata, F., Robertson, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T. 2010. Holacanthus passer. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T165880A6155998. . Downloaded on 18 September 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided