Najas marina 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Hydrocharitales Hydrocharitaceae

Scientific Name: Najas marina L.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Holly-leaved Naiad
French Grande Naïade
Najas fluviatilis Poir.
Najas gracilis (Morong) Small
Najas latifolia A.Braun
Najas major All.
Taxonomic Source(s): The Plant List. 2015. The Plant List. Version 1.1. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: Numerous subspecies have been described within this species (Triest 1988) but these are not consistently recognised.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-06-08
Assessor(s): Lansdown, R.V.
Reviewer(s): Luke, W.R.Q.
Contributor(s): Molur, S., Allen, D.J., Király, G., Patzelt, A., Knees, S.G., Lakshminarasimhan, P., Gunaga, S., Anitha, K., Raghavan, R., Rasingam, L. & Beentje, H.J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Smith, K., Juffe Bignoli, D., Garcia, N. & Maiz-Tome, L.
This species is classed as Least Concern because although there are countries, particularly in northern regions, where it is scarce and two subspecies from the Mediterranean region require conservation action, throughout most of its range it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any significant threats.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

This species has an almost cosmopolitan distribution: it occurs in Africa north and south of the Sahara, including Indian Ocean Islands. It ranges from Europe east through Altai, Siberia, the Caucasus, Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula, throughout the Indian Subcontinent, Kazakhstan and Mongolia to the Amur and Primorsky provinces of Far Eastern Russia, China, Japan and the Korean Peninsula and south to Taiwan, Myanmar and Viet Nam. It also occurs in the Molucca Islands and Australia as well as the United States (Hultén and Fries 1986), Mexico and Central and South America (Artsdatabanken 2007-2009, Bundesamt für Naturschutz 2010, Castroviejo et al. 2010, CRSF/ZDSF 2010, efloras 2008, eFloras 2008b, Ermakova 2005, Hultén and Fries 1986, Kaplan 2010, Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet 2010, Preston, Pearman and Dines 2002, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2010, Triest 1988, Welten and Sutter 1982). It is widespread in western, northern and southern Africa and has also been recorded in eastern Africa. 

Countries occurrence:
Albania; Algeria; Argentina; Aruba; Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Victoria, Western Australia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; China (Anhui, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Dominica; Ecuador (Galápagos); Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); El Salvador; Eritrea; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece (Greece (mainland), Kriti); Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Haiti; Hungary; India; Indonesia (Maluku); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mexico; Monaco; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Poland; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Puerto Rico; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation (Altay, Amur, Buryatiya, Central Asian Russia, Central European Russia, Chita, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Primoryi, South European Russia, West Siberia); Rwanda; San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Northern Cape Province); Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland)); Sri Lanka; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe); Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Uganda; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain); United States (Arizona, California, Florida, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin); Uzbekistan; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen (North Yemen, Socotra, South Yemen); Zambia; Zimbabwe
Additional data:
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is listed as Endangered in Norway and Vulnerable in Cyprus, Denmark, Switzerland and the UK. Elsewhere populations appear to be reasonably abundant and stable (Kålås and Bakken 2006, Preston, Pearman and Dines 2002, Procházka 2001, Rašomavičius 2007, Stolze and Phil 1998, Tsintides 2007). The species was formerly rare in the Czech Republic but many new localities have recently been discovered (Triest 1998) and the plant is classified as Vulnerable (Grulich 2012). Globally, the population is considered stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species typically grows in mesotrophic to eutrophic water in lakes, ponds and slow-flowing rivers as well as occasionally in rice fields. It is often found in shallow water but can range up to a depth of six metres and it will also occur in alkaline or brackish water (Triest 1988, eFloras 2008). It is mainly found in waters of high temperature, pH, sulphates and high electrolyte concentrations (or in saline sites) on sand, silt, clay with shells and thick organic matter.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This plant is occasionally used in aquariums. The young stem is edible and is consumed in Viet Nam.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

There are no known past, ongoing or future threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The plant is now assessed as Vulnerable in the Czech Republic (Grulich 2012), Endangered in Norway and Vulnerable in Cyprus, Denmark, Switzerland and the UK. Elsewhere there are no conservation measures in place or needed.

Three subspecies have red list assessments in the Mediterranean region: ssp. ehrenbergii is found in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt and it classed as Near Threatened; ssp. arsenariensis is classed as Critically Endangered and is endemic to Algeria; ssp. armata classed as Least Concern and is found in Spain, Corsica (France), Crete (Greece), Syria, Israel, Turkey, and Egypt.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.14. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.16. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

Bibliography [top]

Artsdatabanken. 2007-2009. GBIF Norge.

Bundesamt für Naturschutz. 2010. FloraWeb. Bonn Available at:

Castroviejo, S., Aedo, C., Lainz, M., Morales, R., Muñoz Garmendia, F., Nieto Feliner, G. and Paiva, J. (eds). 2010. Flora Iberica. Volume 17. Real Jardín Botaníco, C.S.I.C. Servicio de Publicaciones, Madrid.

CRSF/ZDSF. 2010. Online-Flora. Chambésy, Geneva Available at:

eFloras. 2008. Flora of China. Available at:

eFloras. 2008. Flora of North America. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA Available at:

Ermakova, S.S. (ed.). 2005. Red Book of the Republic of Belarus. Plants. "Belorussian Encyclopedia" Petrus Brovka, Minsk.

Grulich, V. 2012. Red List of vascular plants of the Czech Republic: 3rd edition. Preslia 84: 631-645.

Hultén, E. and Fries, M. 1986. Atlas of North European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. Koeltz Scientific Books, Konigstein.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Kålås, J.A., Viken, Å. and Bakken, T. (eds). 2006. Norsk Rødliste 2006 – 2006 Norwegian Red List. Artsdatabanken.

Kaplan, Z. 2010. Najadaceae Juss. – řečankovité. In: J. Štěpánková, J. Chrtek Jr. and Z. Kaplan (eds), Květena České republiky (Flora of the Czech Republic), pp. 317-321. Academia, Prague.

Lye K.A. & Edwards S. 1997. Najadaceae. In: Edwards, Sebsebe & Hedberg (ed.), Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Addia Ababa.

Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet. 2010. Den virtuella floran. Stockholm Available at:

Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. and Dines, T.D. 2002. New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Procházka, F. 2001. Black and Red List of Vascular Plants of the Czech Republic. Agency for Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection, Příroda.

Rašomavičius, V. (ed.). 2007. Red Data Book of Lithuania (Lietuvos Raudonoji Knyga). pp. 800. Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania, Vilnius.

Simpson, D. (ed.). 1989. Hydrocharitaceae. In: R.M. Polhill (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa, pp. 29. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Stolze, M. and Phil, S. (eds). 1998. Rødliste 1997 over planter og dyr i Danmark (Red List 1997 of plants and animals in Denmark). Miljø- og Energiministeriet, Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser og Skov- og Naturstyrelsen. (Ministry of Environment and Energy, National Environmental Research Institute, National Forest and Nature Agency), Copenhagen.

The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2010. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Available at:

Triest, L. 1988. A revision of the genus Najas L. (Najadaceae) in the Old World. Classe des Sciences naturelles et medicales, Academie Royale des Sciences d'Outre-mer.

Tsintides, T., Christodoulou, C.S., Delipetrou, P. and Georghiou, K. 2007. The Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus. Cyprus Forestry Association, Lefkosia.

Welten, M. and Sutter, H.C.R. 1982. Verbreitungsatlas der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen der Schweiz. Vol. 2. Birkhäuser Velag, Basel.

Citation: Lansdown, R.V. 2017. Najas marina. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T164322A97156351. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
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