Najas marina 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Hydrocharitales Hydrocharitaceae

Scientific Name: Najas marina
Species Authority: L.
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Holly-leaved Naiad
French Grande Naïade
Najas fluviatilis Poir.
Najas gracilis (Morong) Small
Najas latifolia A.Braun
Najas major All.
Taxonomic Source(s): The Plant List. 2015. The Plant List. Version 1.1. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-04-08
Assessor(s): Mani, S.
Reviewer(s): Lakshminarasimhan, P., Gunaga, S., Anitha, K., Raghavan, R., Rasingam, L., Molur, S. & García, N.
Contributor(s): Molur, S., Patzelt, A., Knees, S.G. & Lansdown, R.V.

Although there is no detailed information about this species' populations, it covers a wide geographic range and seems to be common in its habitat. No major threats have been reported and the species is therefore listed as Least Concern.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2013 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This is a widespread cosmopolitan species which occurs all over the world. Recorded from most countries in Europe and Africa. Also widespread across Asia, and South and North America.
Countries occurrence:
Åland Islands; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Argentina; Aruba; Australia (Coral Sea Is. Territory, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Victoria, Western Australia); Austria; Bahamas; Belgium; Belize; Bhutan; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Bulgaria; Burundi; Canada; China (Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan); Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Dominica; Ecuador (Galápagos); Egypt; El Salvador; Eritrea; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Guernsey; Haiti; Holy See (Vatican City State); Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia (Maluku); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Isle of Man; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jersey; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Malta; Mauritius; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar (Myanmar (mainland)); Namibia (Namibia (main part)); Netherlands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Romania; Russian Federation (Altay, Amur, Buryatiya, Chita, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Primoryi, West Siberia); Rwanda; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal); Spain; Sri Lanka; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; United Kingdom; United States; Uzbekistan; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of (Venezuela (mainland)); Viet Nam; Yemen (North Yemen, Socotra); Zambia; Zimbabwe
Upper elevation limit (metres):1800
Lower depth limit (metres):3
Upper depth limit (metres):1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:No information on its global population is available although it can be found all over the world. It can be dominant in freshwater habitats.

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It grows in ponds, slow-moving streams and rivers, and lakes. Sometimes it can be seen in paddy fields.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This plant is commonly used in aquariums. The young stem is edible and it is consumed in Viet Nam.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No major threats to this species have been reported.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

No conservation information on this species.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.16. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.8. Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Agami, M. and Waisel, Y. 1984. Germination of Najas marina L. Aquatic Botany 19: 37-44.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Missouri Botanical Garden. 2010. eFloras. Available at:

USDA. 2010. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available at:

WCSPF. 2010. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Available at:

Citation: Mani, S. 2013. Najas marina. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T164322A19238596. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.
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