Clupea harengus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII CLUPEIFORMES CLUPEIDAE

Scientific Name: Clupea harengus
Species Authority: Linnaeus, 1758
Common Name(s):
English Atlantic Herring, Norwegian Sloe, Bismark Herring, Bloater, Cleanplate Herring, Cut spiced Herring, Fall Herring, Golden cure, Hern, Herning, Herring, Herron, Kipper, Kipper Herring, Klondyked Herring, Labrador Herring, Matje cured Herring, Mattie, Mediterranean Cure, Melker, Mesh Herring, Milker Herring, Murman Herring, Mustard Herring, Newcastle Kipper, Norwegian Cured Herring, Norwegian Herring, Norwegian Milker, Norwegian Silver Herring, Bank Herring, Oriental Cure, Pearl Essence, Pickled Herring, Pickling, Protestant, Red Herring, Sea Atlantic Herring, Sea Herring, Sea Stick, Shore Herring, Sild, Silver Cured Herring, Soused Herring, Split, Split Cure Herring, Spring Herring, Sugar Cured Fish, Summer Herring, Whitebait, Yawling
French Gendarme, Hareng, Hareng Atlantique, Hareng de l'Atlantique, Hareng Saur
Spanish Arenque, Arenque del Atlántico, Escabeche Frito
Synonym(s):
Clupea alba Yarrell, 1829
Clupea atlanticus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea borealis Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea britannicus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea caledonicus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea cimbricus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea elongata Lesueur, 1818
Clupea frisius Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea halec Mitchill, 1814
Clupea harengus Linnaeus, 1758
Clupea harengus atlanticus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea harengus borealis Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea harengus britannicus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea harengus caledonicus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea harengus cimbricus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea harengus frisius Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea harengus islandicus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea harengus ivernicus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea harengus norvegivus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea harengus scandicus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea harengus scoticus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea harengus septemtrionalis Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea islandicus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea ivernicus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea leachii Yarrell, 1832
Clupea minima Storer, 1839
Clupea norvegivus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea scandicus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea scoticus Schnakenbeck, 1931
Clupea septemtrionalis Schnakenbeck, 1931
Cyprinus esca Walbaum, 1792
Rogenia alba Valenciennes, 1847

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-02-04
Assessor(s): Herdson, D. & Priede, I.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.
Justification:
Clupea harengus has been assessed as Least Concern. This is one of the most commercially important species within the northern Atlantic Ocean. Since a severe population crash in the stock in the 1970s, limits were imposed on the harvest levels of this species in an attempt to rebuild the stock. Since then the biomass has shown in an increase. Current estimates suggest that only 10% of the stock is being exploited and there are no reports of over-fishing occuring. Continued monitoring Continued monitoring of the harvest levels and stock biomass is needed to ensure limits can be revised should there be changes to the levels of recruitment.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is distributed from northern Bay of Biscay to Iceland and southern Greenland, eastward to Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, including the Baltic. It is also seen along southwestern Greenland and Labrador down to South Carolina.
Countries:
Native:
Belgium; Canada; Denmark; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Germany; Greenland; Iceland; Ireland; Latvia; Lithuania; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Russian Federation; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; United Kingdom; United States
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – northwest
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: A US stock assessment (age classes 2+) of Georges Bank, Nantucket Shoals and the Gulf of Maine, estimated there to be 1.4 million metric tonnes in 2001 (Overholtz et al. 2004). Biomass is now thought to have declined to 1 million metric tonnes in 2005.
Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This benthopelagic, oceanodromous species, forms large schools in coastal waters. It feeds predominantly upon copepods, migrating up the water column at night to feed in shallower surface waters. The species is divided into several subspecies, with separate spawning times; these include the winter spawning Norwegian and Icelandic herrings, the autumn spawning Icelandic and North sea herrings and the Baltic herrings. Individuals mature at ages ranging from three to nine years. The Atlantic Herring ranges in depth from the surface to 200 m.

Three very large year classes were produced in 1994, 1998 and 2002 (TRAC 2006).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Atlantic Herring is commercially commercially harveste throughout its range.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the mid 20th century, the Atlantic Herring was considered to be one of the most commercially valuable food fish species.

Stocks of this species showed a strong reduction in the 1970s from global landings of 4,095,394 t in 1966, to 887,533 t in 1979. This decline was attributed to overfishing. Approximately 10-20% of these landings are taken from Area 21 (Northwest Atlantic) while the rest is taken in Area 27 (Northeast Atlantic). The largest reported catches are from Norway and Iceland. In the last 10 years global catches have shown an increase: 1998 - 2,421,462 t, 1999 - 2,411,408 t, 2000 - 2,381,011 t, 2001 - 1,952,605 t, 2002 - 1,873,503 t, 2003 - 1,958,929 t, 2004 - 2,020,111 t, 2005 - 2,316,050 t, 2006 - 2,244,595 t. While stocks hit critically low levels in the 1970s and showed signs of commercial extinction, they have since recovered (Melvin and Stephenson 2007).

The Northwest Atlantic stock is treated as two separate stocks: Gulf of Maine stock and Georges Bank-Nantucket Shoals stock. The Georges Bank stock crashed in the 1970s due to overexploitation by foreign fishers, while the Gulf of Maine stock continued to support coastal fisheries. The Georges Bank stock is now said to have fully recovered due to recolonisation from Gulf of Maine and Nantucket Shoals. The Bay of Fundy stock declined from approximately 570,000 mt in 1997 to 460,000 mt in 2000 - 2001, however in 2002/ 2003 it showed an increase (Melvin et al. 2004; NOAA 2005). Despite this increase there are concerns about the stock due to fewer adults in the population.

Current rates of fishing mortality in the U.S. fisheries are calculated to be approximately 10% indicating that stocks are under-utilised, however there is concern that the inshore Gulf of Maine stock is being over-exploited (NOAA 2005).

An average fishing mortality (F) of 0.7 was calculated for the 1970s, this declined to 0.3 in the 1980s, 0.15 in 1991 and has since remained stable at 0.1 since 2002 (TRAC 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: In response to over-exploitation of stocks in the 1970s, Total Allowable Commercial Catch (TACC) limits were imposed. The current allowable biological catch for 2007-2009 has been set at 194,000 mt (NOAA 2007).

The Biological Maximum Sustainable Yield (BMSY) for this species has been calculated at 629,000 mt, so even with the current estimates of the stock biomass, it is still above this limit. The stock is not reported to be in an overfished condition, and no over-fishing is thought to be occurring (Overholtz 2006).

Continued monitoring of the harvest levels and stock biomass is needed to ensure limits can be revised should there be changes to the levels of recruitment.

Bibliography [top]

Aasen, O. 1952. The Lusterfjord herring and its environment. Fiskeridirektoratets Skrifter, Serie Havundersøkelser 10(2): 1-63.

Albert, T.O. 1995. Diel changes in food and feeding of small gadoids on a coastal bank. ICES Journal of Marine Science 52: 873-885.

Almatar, S.M. 1984. Effects of acute changes in temperature and salinity on the oxygen uptake of larvae of herring (Clupea harengus) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Marine Biology 80: 117-124.

Ancellin, I. 1963. Note sur la mortalité du hareng du sud de la Mer du Nord et de la Manche orientale.

Anthony, V.C. and Waring, G. 1980. The assessment and management of the Georges Bank herring fishery. ICES Rapp. Proces-Verb.

Anthony, V.C. and Waring, G.T. 1980. Estimates of herring spawning stock biomass and egg production for the Georges Bank-Gulf of Maine region.

Arnett, R.T.P. and Whelan, J. 2001. Comparing the diet of cod (Gadus morhua) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus): an investigation of secondary ingestion. Journal of Marine Biological Association UK 81(2): 365-366.

Berg, L.S. 1962. Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd.

Beverton, R.J.H. 1963. Maturation, growth and mortality of clupeid and engraulid stocks in relation to fishing. Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réunions du Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 154: 15.

Beverton, R.J.H. and Holt, S.J. 1959. A review of the lifespans and mortality rates of fish in nature and their relation to growth and other physiological characteristics. J and A Churchill Ltd, London.

Bigelow, H.B., Bradbury, M.G., Dymond, J.R., Greeley, J.R., Hildebrand, S.F., Mead, G.W., Miller, R.R., Rivas, L.R., Schroeder, W.L., Suttkus, R.D. and Vladykov, V.D. 1963. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part three. Yale University, New Haven.

Bjelland, O., Bergstad, O.A., Skjæraasen, J.E. and Meland, K. 2000. Trophic ecology of deep-water fishes associated with the continental slope of the eastern Norwegian Sea. Sarsia 85: 101-117.

Blaxter, J.H.S. 1990. The herring. Biologist 37(1): 27-31.

Bowman, R.E., Stillwell, C.E., Michaels, W.L. and Grosslein, M.D. 2000. Food of northwest Atlantic fishes and two common species of squid. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Technical Memorandom, NMFS-NE 155. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Brand, A.R. 1979. The Isle of Man herring fishery in 1978. Annales Biologiques 34: 174-176.

Bridger, J.P. 1961. On fecundity and larval abundance of Downs herring. Fisheries Investigation London 23(3): 30.

Brown, E.G. and Pierce, G.J. 1998. Monthly variation in the diet of harbour seals in inshore waters along the southeast Shetland (U.K.) coastline. Marine Ecology Progress Series 167: 275-289.

Buckel, J.A., M.J. Fogarty and D.O. Conover. 1999. Foraging habits of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, on the U.S. east coast continental shelf.: Fish. Bull. 97:758-775.

Burd, A.C. 1962. Growth and recruitment of herring of the southern North Sea. Fisheries Investigations Service 2(5): 1-42.

Burd, A.C. 1974. The north-east Atlantic herring and the failure of an industry. In: F.R. Harden Jones (ed.), Sea fisheries research, pp. 167-192. Elek Science, London, U.K.

Burd, A.C. 1978. Long-term changes in North Sea herring stocks. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux des Reunions. CIEM 172: 137-153.

Casey, J. and Periero, J. 1995. European hake (M. merluccius) in the north-east Atlantic. In: J. Alheit and T.J. Pitcher (eds), ake: Fisheries, ecology and markets, pp. 125-147. Chapman and Hall, New York, USA.

Chadwick E. M. P. and Cairns, D.K. 1988. Assessment of Atlantic herring in NAFO division 4T, 1987.

Checkley, D.M., Jr. 1984. Relation of growth to ingestion for larvae of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus and other fish. Marine Ecology 18: 215-224.

Chugunova, N.I. 1959. Age and growth studies in fish. A systematic guide for ichthyologists. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Izdate.

Claytor, R.R., Nielsen, G., Dupuis, H.M.C. and Cairns, D.K. 1991. Assessment of Atlantic herring in NAFO division 4T, 1990.

Cleary, L. 1983. An assessment of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence herring stock complex.

Collins, M.A., De Grave, S., Lordan, C., Burnell, G.M. and Rodhouse, P.G. 1994. Diet of the squid Loligo forbesi Steenstrup (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Irish waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science 51: 337-344.

Coppola, S.R., Fischer, W., Garibaldi, L., Scialabba, N. and Carpenter, K.E. 1994. SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. Rome, Italy: Electronic database (Fisheries) Available at: http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=171&speccode=2534.

Coull, K.A., Jermyn, A.S., Newton, A.W., Henderson, G.I. and Hall, W.B. 1989. Length/weight relationships for 88 species of fish encountered in the North Atlantic. Scottish Fisheries Research Report.

Crespo, J., Gajate, J. and Ponce, R. 2001. Clasificación científica e identificación de nombres vernáculos existentes en la base de datos de seguimiento informático de recursos naturales oceánicos. Instituto Español de Oceanografia, Madrid, Spain.

Crozier, W.W. 1985. Observations on the food and feeding of the angler-fish, Lophius piscatorius L., in the northern Irish Sea. Journal of Fisheries Biology 27: 655-665.

Cushing, D.H. 1959. On the effects of fishing on the herring of the southern North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 24: 283-307.

Cushing, D.H. 1992. A short history of the downs stock of herring. ICES Journal of Marine Science 49: 437-443.

Daan, N., Johnson, B., Larsen, J.R. and Sparholt, H. 1993. Analysis of the ray (Raja spec.) samples collected during the 1991 International Stomach Sampling Project..

Dalpadado, P., Ellertsen, B., Melle, W. and Dommasnes, A. 2000. Food and feeding conditions of Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) through its feeding migrations. ICES Joural Marine Science 57(4): 843-857.

Dawe, E.G. 1992. Predation by short-finned squid on Atlantic cod and other fish at Newfoundland, Canada. Copenhagen-Denmark ICES, Copenhagen.

De Gee, A. and Kikkert, A.H. 1993. Analysis of the grey gurnard (Eutrigla gurnardus) samples collected during the 1991 International Stomach Sampling Project. ICES.

De Silva, C.D. and Tytler, P. 1973. The influence of reduced environmental oxygen on the metabolism and survival of herring and plaice larvae. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 7: 345-362.

Dolgov, A.V. 2000. New data on composition and distribution of the Barents Sea ichthyofauna. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES CM 2000) / Mini-Symposium (12) on Defining the Role of ICES in Supporting Biodiversity Conservation.

Dorel, D. 1986. Poissons de l'Atlantique nord-est relations taille-poids. Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation.

Doucette, Jr. A.J. and Fitzsimons, J.M. 1988. Karyology of elopiform and clupeiform fishes. Copeia 1: 124-130.

Dragesund, O. and Ulltung, O. 1975. Stock size fluctuations and rate of exploitation of the Norwegian spring spawning herring 1950-1975. ICES C.M.

Dragesund, O., Hamre, J. and Ulltung, O. 1980. The assessment and management of pelagic fish stocks. Rapports et Procèsverbaux.

Eldridge, M.B., Echeverria, T. and Whipple, J.A. 1977. Energetics of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) embryos and larvae exposed to low concentrations of benzene, a monoaromatic component of crude oil. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106(5): 452-461.

Enberg, K. 2005. Benefits of threshold strategies and age-selective harvesting in a fluctuating fish stock of Norwegian spring spawning herring Clupea harengus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 298: 277-286.

Engelhard, G and Heino, M. 2004. Maturity changes in Norwegian spring-spawning herring before, during, and after a major population collapse. Fisheries Research 66: 299-310.

Erzini, K. 1991. A compilation of data on variability in length-age in marine fishes. Fisheries Stock Assessment, Collaborative Research Support Program XII. University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island, USA.

Eschmeyer, W.N. 1998. Catalog of fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA.

Fiedler, K. 1991. Lehrbuch der Speziellen Zoologie. Band II: Wirbeltiere. 2. Teil: Fische. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena.

Flintegård, H. 1987. Fishes in the North Sea Museum's aquaria. North Sea Museum, North Sea Centre, North Sea Museum, North Sea Centre.

Flower, S.S. 1935. Further notes on the duration of life in animals. I. Fishes: as determined by otolith and scale-readings and direct observations on living individuals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 2: 265-304.

Fontaine, P. -M., Hammill, M.O., Barrette, C. and Kingsley, M.C. 1994. Summer diet of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the estuary and the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Science 51: 172-178.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1992. FAO yearbook. Fishery statistics: catches and landings. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 1986. Fishery statistics - catches and landings. FAO Yearbook.

Foot, T. 2000. Guinness Book of World Records 2001. Guinness World Records Ltd.

Frimodt, C. 1995. Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Osney Mead, Oxford.

Froese, R. 2001. Ten years of FishBase. EC Fisheries cooperative Bulletin 14(1-4): 13.

Froese, R. and Papasissi, C. 1990. The use of modern relational databases for identification of fish larvae. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 6: 37-45.

Gamble, J.C., MacLachlan, P. and Seaton, D.D. 1985. Comparative growth and development of autumn and spring spawned herring larvae reared in large enclosed ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series 26: 19-33.

Garcia, S. 1994. World review of highly migratory species and straddling stocks. Rome.

Gibbons, S. 1999. Collect fish on stamps. Stanley Gibbons Ltd., London and Ringwood.

Gibson, R.N. and Ezzi, I.A. 1992. The relative profitability of particulate- and filter-feeding in the herring, Clupea harengus L. Journal of Fisheries Biology 40(4): 577-590.

Grabda, E. and Heese, T. 1991. Polskie nazewnictwo popularne kraglouste i ryby. Cyclostomata et Pisces. Wyzsza Szkola Inzynierska w Koszalinie, Koszalin, Poland.

Graham, J.J. and Townsend, D.W. 1985. Mortality, growth, and transport of larval Atlantic herring Clupea harengus in Maine coastal waters. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114(4): 490-498.

Hacunda, J.S. 1981. Trophic relationships among demersal fishes in a coastal area of the Gulf of Maine. Fisheries Bulletin 79(4): 775-788.

Halbeisen, H.-W. 1988. Bestimmungsschlüssel für Fischlarven der Nordsee und angrenzender Gebiete. Berichte aus dem Institut für Meereskunde, Kiel.

Hanel, L. and Novák, J. 2001. České názvy zivočichů V. Ryby a rybovití obratlovci (Pisces) II., nozdratí (Sarcoptrygii), paprskoploutví (Semionotiformes) [chrupavčití (Chondrostei), kostnatí (Neopterygeii): kostlíni ( (zoologické Semionotiformes)– bezostní (Clupeiformes). Národní muzeum (zoologické oddeleí), Praha, Czech Republic.

Harris, M.P. and Wanless, S. 1997. Breeding success, diet, and brood neglect in the kittiwake (Rissa Tridactyla) over an 11-year period. ICES J.ournal of Marine Science 54: 615-623.

Hesler, T.E., Almeida F.P. and Waldron, D.E. 1995. Biology and fisheries of north-west Atlantic hake (silver hake: M. bilinearis). In: J. Alheit and T.J. Pitcher (eds), Hake: Fisheries, ecology and markets, pp. 203-237. Chapman and Hall, New York, USA.

Hickling, C.F. 1940. The fecundity of the herring of the southern North Sea. Journal of Marine Biology 24: 619-632.

Hildebrand, S.F. 1964. Family Clupeidae. In: Y.H. Olsen (ed.), Fishes of the western North Atlantic, Part 3, pp. 257-454. Memoir Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Yale University, New Haven, CT.

Hinrichs, R. 1985. Menge und Zusammensetzung der Nahrung beim Hering und Sprott der Ostsee in den Jahren 1980-1982. Fischereiforschung, Wiss. Schriftenreihe 23(1): 70.

Hinrichs, R. 1986. Nahrungsuntersuchungen und diurnaler Rhythmus der Nahrungsaufnahme von Hering und Sprott der Ostsee. Fischereiforschung, Wiss. Schriftenreihe 24(2): 31.

Hislop, J.R.G., Robb, A.P., Bell, M.A. and Armstrong, D.W. 1991. The diet and food consumption of whiting (Merlangius merlangus) in the North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 48: 139-156.

Holden, M.J. 1966. The food of the spurdog, Squalus acanthias (L.). Journal du conseil permanent international pour l'exploration de la mer 30(2): 255-66.

Holliday, F.G.T., Blaxter, J.H.S. and Lasker, R. 1964. Oxygen uptake of developing eggs and larvae of the herring (Clupea harengus). Journal of Marine Biology Association UK 44: 711-723.

Hønes, A., Bergstad, O.A. and Albert, O.T. 1992. Seasonal variation of the diet of cod (Gadus morhuaL.) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.) at a herring spawning ground. ICES 9: 1-23.

Houde, E.D. and Zastrow, C.E. 1993. Ecosystem- and taxon-specific dynamic and energetics properties of fish larvae assemblages. Bulletin of Marine Science 53(2): 290-335.

Hubold, G. 1975. Das Wachstum des Buchan-Herings (Clupea harengus L.) in den Jahren 1955 bis 1973. Kiel University.

Hubold, G. 1978. Variations in growth rate and maturity of herring in the Northern North Sea in the years 1955-1973. Rapp. P.-v Réun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 172: 154.

Hughes, G.M. 1966. The dimensions of fish gills in relation to their function. Journal of Experimental Biology 45: 177-195.

Hughes, G.M. and Morgan, M. 1973. The structure of fish gills in relation to their respiratory function. Biological Review 48: 419-475.

ICES. 1978. Report of the Working Group on Assessment of Pelagic Stocks in the Baltic. Appendix 1. ICES.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Jakobsson, J. 1980. Exploitation of the Icelandic spring - and summer-spawning herring in relation to fisheries management, 1947-1977.: ICES Rapports et Proces-Verbaux des Reunions, 177:.

Jenkins, J.T. 1902. Altersbestimmung durch Otolithen bei den Clupeiden. Zoologischen Institut der Universität Kiel, Universität Kiel.

Jennings, S. and Beverton, R.J.H. 1991. Intraspecific variation in the life history tactics of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.) stocks. ICES Journal of Marine Science 48: 117-125.

Jennings, S., Reynolds, J.D. and Mills, S.C. 1998. Life history correlates of responses to fisheries exploitation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Bulletin 265: 333-339.

Jewett, S.C. 1978. Summer food of the pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, near Kodiak Island, Alaska. Fisheries Bulletin 76(3): 700-706.

Joensen, J.S. and Vedel Tåning, A. 1970. Marine and Freshwater Fishes. Zoology of the Faroes LXII - LXIII.

Jonsson, G. 1992. Islenskir fiskar. Fiolvi, Reykjavik.

Keys, A.B. 1928. The weight-length relation in fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 14(12): 922-925.

Kinzer, J. 1983. Aquarium Kiel: Beschreibungen zur Biologie der ausgestellten Tierarten. Institut für Meereskunde an der Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Kiorboe, T. and Munk, P. 1986. Feeding and growth of larval herring, Clupea harengus, in relation to density of copepod nauplii. Environmental Biology of Fish 17: 133-139.

Klinkhardt, M. 1986. Ergebnisse von Untersuchungen zur Schlupf- und Dottersackphase der Larven von Rügenschen Frühjahrsheringen (Clupea harengus L.). Fischereiforschung, Wiss. Schriftenreihe 24(2): 28.

Klinkhardt, M. 1986. Gedanken zur Abhängigkeit der Laichentwicklung Rügenscher Frühjahrsheringe (Clupea harengus L.) von Umweltparametern. Fischereiforschung, Wiss. Schriftenreihe 24(2): 22.

Klinkhardt, M.B. 1993. Cytogenetics of the herring (Clupea harengus L.). 2. Karyotypes of White Sea herring groups. Cytobios 75(302-303): 149-156.

Klinkhardt, M., Tesche, M. and Greven, H. 1995. Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.

Koli, L. 1990. Suomen kalat. [Fishes of Finland]. Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, Helsinki.

Kornfield, I., B.D. Sidell and P.S. Gagnon. 1982. Stock definition in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus): genetic evidence for discrete fall and spring spawning populations.: Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39:1610-1621.

Kosior, M. and Strzyzewska, K. 1979. The fecundity of Baltic herring.

Kotlyar, A.N. 1984. Dictionary of names of marine fishes on the six languages. French and European publications, Moscow, Russia.

Kullander, S.O. 1999. Swedish fishes: checklist of Swedish fishes. Swedish Museum of Natural History.

Laffaille, P., Feunteun, E. and Lefeuvre, J.C. 2000. Composition of fish communities in a European macrotidal salt marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay, France). Estuaruries Coastal Shelf Science 51(4): 429-438.

Lajus, D.L. 1987. New data on karyology of herrings which spawn in the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. (Novye dannye o kariologiceskich osobennostjach sel'dei nerestjaschtschichsja v kandalakhschskom salive belogo morja). Dokladi Akademii Nauk SSR 297(1): 254-256.

Lajus, D.L. 1992. Khromosomnye nabory 13 vidov ryb V+Belogo morja. - Problemy izuchenija ratsional'nogo ispol'sovanija okhrany prirodnykh resursov Belogo morja..

Lajus, D.L. 1994. Opizanije khromosomnogo nabor mnogoposvonkovoi sel'di Culpea harengus iz Belogo morja. Vopr. Ikhtiol. 34: 572-574.

Landbrugs -og Fiskeriministeriet. 1995. Fiskeriårbogen 1996. Årbog for den danske fiskerflåde. Fiskeriårbogens Forlag ved Iver C. Weilbach & Co, Landbrugs.

Lassen, H. and Sjöstrand, B. 1980. Estimation of mortality components for some Baltic herring stocks in 1979.

Last, J. M. 1987. The food of immature sprat [Sprattus sprattus (L.)] and herring (Clupea harengus) in coastal waters of the North Sea. Journal of Conservation International Exploration 44(1): 73-79.

Last, J.M. 1989. The food of herring, Clupea harengus, in the North Sea, 1983-1986. Journal Fish Biology 34: 489-501.

Lindsey, C.C. 1978. Form, function and locomotory habits in fish. In: W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall (eds), Fish physiology, pp. 1-100. Academic Press, New York, USA.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordinus, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Impensis Direct., Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.

Lough, R.C., Bolz, G.R., Pennington, M. and Grosslein, M.D. 1985. Larval abundance and mortality of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.) spawned in the Georges Bank and Nantucket Shoals areas, 1971-78 seasons, in relation to spawning stock size. Journal Northwest Atlantic Fisheies Science 6: 21-35.

Mansueti, A.J. and Hardy, J.D. 1967. Development of fishes of the Chesapeake Bay region. An atlas of egg, larval and juvenile stages. Part. 1. Port City Press, Baltimore.

Martini, F.H. 1998. The ecology of hagfishes. In: J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber and H. Malte (eds), The biology of hagfishes, pp. 55-77. Chapman and Hall, London, U.K.

McAllister, D.E. 1990. A working list of fishes of the world. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada.

McGurk, M.D. 1984. Effects of delayed feeding and temperature on the age of irreversible starvation and on the rates of growth and mortality of Pacific herring larvae.: Mar. Biol. 84:13-26.

McGurk, M.D. 1986. Natural mortality of marine pelagic fish eggs and larvae: role of spatial patchiness. Marine Ecological Progress Series 34: 227-242.

McKeown, B.A. 1984. Fish Migration. Croom Helm, London.

McQuinn, I.H. 1988. An assessment of the west coast of Newfoundland (NAFO Division 4R) herring resource in 1987.

Melvin, G.D., Stephenson, R.L. 2007. The Dynammics of a Recovering Fish Stock: Georges Bank Herring. CES Journal of Marine Science: 64(1): 69-82.

Messieh, S.N. 1976. Fecundity studies on Atlantic herring from the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence and along Nova Scotia coast. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 105(3): 384-394.

Michalsen, K. and Nedreass, K.H. 1998. Food and feeding of greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Walbaum) in the Barents Sea and East Greenland waters. Sarsia 83: 401-407.

Möller, H. and Anders, K. 1983. Krankheiten und Parasiten der Meeresfische. Verlag Möller, Kiel.

Möller, H. and Anders, K. 1986. Diseases and parasites of marine fishes. Verlag Möller, Kiel.

Möller, H. and Anders, K. 1989. Krankheiten und Parasiten der Meeresfische, 100 Dias. Verlag H. Möller, Kiel.

Möllmann, C. and Köster, F.W. 1999. Food consumption by clupeids in the Central Baltic: evidence for top-down control? ICES Journal of Marine Science 56: 100-113.

Montevecchi, W.A., Cairns, D.K. and Myers, R.A. 2002. Predation on marine-phase Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar by gannets (Morus bassanus) in the northwest Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fishery Aquatic Science 59: 602-612.

Morley, S.A., Batty, R.S., Geffen, A.J. and Tytler, P. 1999. Egg size manipulation: a technique for investigating maternal effects on the hatching characteristics of herring. Journal of Fish Biology 55((Suppl. A)): 233-238.

Mouritsen, R. 2004. Fiskanøvn.

Müller, P. 1985. Untersuchungen zur Bestandskunde des Laichheringsvorkommens Rügens.

Muus, B.J. and Dahlström, P. 1974. Collins guide to the sea fishes of Britain and North-Western Europe. Collins, London.

Muus, B.J. and Dahlstrøm, P. 1989. Havfisk og Fiskeri i Nordvesteuropa. GEC Gads Forlag,, København.

Muus, B.J. and Nielsen, J.G. 1999. Sea fish. Scandinavian Fishing Year Book, Hedehusene, Denmark.

Muus, B., Salomonsen, F. and Vibe, C. 1990. Grønlands fauna (Fisk, Fugle, Pattedyr). Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag A/S Københa.

Myers, R.A., Bridson, J. and Barrowman, N.J. 1995. Summary of worldwide spawner and recruitment data. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries Aquatic Science 2024.: 274.

Neb, K.E. 1952. Untersuchungen über Fortpflanzung und Wachstum an den Heringen der westlichen Ostsee mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Kieler Förde als Laichgebiet und Fangplatz. Christian-Albrechts-University.

Nelson, J.S., Crossman, E.J., Espinosa-Pérez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N. and Williams, J.D. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Newman, L. 1995. Census of fish at the Vancouver aquarium, 1994.

Nijssen, H. and de Groot, S.J. 1974. Catalogue of fish species of the Netherlands. Beaufortia 21(285): 173-207.

Nikolsky, G.W. 1957. Spezielle Fischkunde. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften., Berlin.

Nursall, J.R. 1962. Swimming and the origin of paired appendages. American Zoology 2: 127-141.

O'Brien, L., Burnett, J. and Mayo, R.K. 1993. Maturation of nineteen species of finfish off the northeast coast of the United States, 1985-1990. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Ohno, S., Wolf, U. and Atkin, N.B. 1968. Evolution from fish to mammals by gene duplication. Hereditas 59: 169-187.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1984. Multilingual dictionary of fish and fish products. Fishing News Books Limited, Farnham, Surrey, England.

Østergaard, T.A.S. 2002. List of marine fishes and common names.

Overholtz, W. 2006. Status of Fishery Resources off the Northeastern US - Atlantic herring. In: NEFSC - Resource Evaluation and Assessment Division (eds). NOAA.

Overholtz, W.J., Jacobson, L.D., Melvin, G.D., Cieri, M., Power, M., Libby, D. and Clark, K. 2004. Stock assessment of the Gulf of Maine - Georges Bank herring complex..

Parmanne, R. 1990. Growth, morphological variation and migration of herring (Clupea harengus L.) in the northern Baltic Sea. Finnish Fish Research 10: 1-48.

Parsons, L.S. and Holder, V.M. 1975. Biological characteristics of Southwest Newfoundland herring. International Committee of Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Research. Bulletin 11(1).

Pauly, D. 1978. A preliminary compilation of fish length growth parameters. Berichte des Institut für Meereskunde an der Universität Kiel. Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Pauly, D. 1979. Gill size and temperature as governing factors in fish growth: a generalization of von Bertalanffy's growth formula. Berichte aus dem Instiute für Meereskunde, Kiel University.

Pauly, D. 1980. On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters, and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 39(2): 175-192.

Pauly, D. 1989. Food consumption by tropical and temperate fish populations: some generalizations. Journal of Fish Biology 35((Suppl. A)): 11-20.

Pepin, P. and Penney, R.W. 1997. Patterns of prey size and taxonomic composition in larval fish: are there general size-dependent models? Journal of Fish Biology 51((Suppl. A)): 84-100.

Popiel, J. 1958. The growth rate of the Southern Baltic herring. I.C.E.S. CM 1958/Herring Comm.

Postuma, K.H. 1963. The catch per unit effort and mortality rates in the Southern Bight and Channel herring fisheries. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer.

Qisheng, T. 1987. Estimation of fishing mortality and abundance of pacific herring in the Huanghai Sea by cohort analysis (VPA). Acta Oceanologica Sinica 6(1): 132-141.

Randall, R.G., Moore, D.M. and Pickard, P.R. 1990. Status of Atlantic salmon in the Miramichi River during 1989.

Randolph, S. and Snyder, M. 1993. The seafood list: FDA's guide to acceptable market names for seafood sold in interstate commerce. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, USA.

Rechlin, O. 1986. Vergleichende Untersuchungen des Längenwachstums, der zahlenmässigen Bestandsgrösse und des Fanges nach Stück am frühjahrslaichenden Hering der westlichen Ostsee.: Fischereiforschung, Wiss. Schriftenreihe 24(2):9-1.

Rechlin, O. 1991. Tendencies in the herring population development of the Baltic Sea. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 76(3): 405-412.

Reshetnikov, Y.S., Bogutskaya, N.G., Vasil'eva, E.D., Dorofeeva, E.A., Naseka, A.M., Popova, O.A., Savvaitova, K.A., Sideleva, V.G. and Sokolov, L.I. 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. Journal of Ichthyology 37(9): 687-736.

Rexstad, E. A. and Pikitch, E.K. 1986. Stomach contents and food consumption estimates of Pacific hake, Merluccius productus. Fisheries Bulletin 84(4): 947-956.

Rice, A.L. 1963. The food of the Irish sea herring in 1961 and 1962. Journal of Conservation 28(2): 188-200.

Riede, K. 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales.

Riethe, P. 1991. Das Buch von den Fischen. Otto Müller Verlag, Sazlburg.

Roberts, F.L. 1966. Cell culture of fibroblasts from Clupea harengus gonads. Nature 212: 1592-1593.

Robins, C.R. and Ray, G.C. 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, USA.

Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1980. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication Volume 12. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, USA.

Rochard, E. and Elie, P. 1994. La macrofaune aquatique de l'estuaire de la Gironde. Contribution au livre blanc de l'Agence de l'Eau Adour Garonne. In: J.-L. Mauvais and J.-F. Guillaud (eds), État des connaissances sur l'estuaire de la Gironde. Agence de l'Eau Adour-Garonne, pp. 1-56. Éditions Bergeret, Bordeaux, France.

Rosenthal, R.J., O'Connell, V.M. and Murphy, M.C. 1988. Feeding ecology of ten species of rockfishes (Scorpaenidae) from the Gulf of Alaska. California Fish and Game 74(1): 16-37.

Rottingen, I. and Rottingen, J. 1991. Swimming speed of spent Norwegian spring spawning herring.

Russell, F.S. 1976. The eggs and planktonic stages of British marine fishes. Academic Press, London.

Salminen, M., Erkamo, E. and Salmi, J. 2001. Diet of post-smolt and one-sea-winter atlantic salmon in the Bothnian sea, northern Baltic. Journal of Fish Biology 58(1): 16-35.

Sambilay, V.C., Jr. 1990. Interrelationships between swimming speed, caudal fin aspect ratio and body length of fishes. Fishbyte 8(3): 16-20.

Sanches, J.G. 1989. Nomenclatura Portuguesa de organismos aquáticos (proposta para normalizaçao estatística). Publicaçoes avulsas do Instituto das Pescas da Investigação e do Mar (IPIMAR).

Scabell, J. 1988. Der Ruegensche Frühjahrshering - das Laichgeschehen. Universität Rostock.

Schmiedeberg, I. 2002. Weltweit größte Fisch-Datenbank. Datz.

Schopka, S.A. and Hempel, G. 1973. The spawning potential of populations of herring Clupea harengus L. and cod Gadus morhua L. in relation to the rate of exploitation. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Const. int. Explor. Mer 164(178).

Schulz, N. 1988. An analysis of food intake of cod as a basis for a multispecies assessment in the western Baltic. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer.: 1.

Scotton, L.N., Smith, R.E., Smith, N.S., Price, K.S. and de Sylva, D.P. 1973. Pictorial guide to fish larvae of Delaware Bay: with information and bibliographies useful for the study of fish larvae. In: Delaware Bay Report Series (ed.). College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware.

Scott, W.B. and Tibbo, S.N. 1968. Food and feeding habits of swordfish, Xiphias gladius, in the western north Atlantic. Journal of Fish Research Board Canada 25(5): 903-919.

Skvorzova, T.A. 1974. Chromosomy kompleksy okeanitscheskoi sel'di. iologija promyslovych ryb I besposvonotschnych na rannych stadijach rasvitija. Tes dokl. Vsesojus. Konf. Murmansk: 92-93.

Skvorzova, T.A. 1975. Chromosomy kompleksy okeanitscheskoi sel'di (Culpea harengus harengus n. maris-albi Berg). In: L. Nauka (ed.), Biologija belomorskoi sel'di, pp. 104-108.

Smith, W.G. and Morse, W.W. 1993. Larval distribution patterns: early signals for the collapse/recovery of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus in the Georges Bank area. Fisheries Bulletin, U.S. 91: 338-347.

Sparholt, H. 1989. A model for estimation of natural mortality rate stock size and migration of the Skagerrak-Kattegat and Western Baltic herring stocks, based on catch-at-age, acoustic, and young fish survey data. In: O. Bagge and O. Rechlin (eds), ICES Symposium on Baltic Sea Fishery Resources 19: 261-270. Rostock, Germany.

Steen, J.B. and Berg, T. 1966. The gills of two species of haemoglobin-free fishes compared to those of other teleosts, with a note on severe anemia in the eel. Compilation of Biochemistry and Physiology 18: 517-526.

Stephensen, R.L., Power, M.J. and Iles, T.D. 1975. Assessment of the 1986 4WX herring fishery.

Stocker, M. and D.J. Noakes. 1900. Evaluating forcasting procedures for predicting Pacific herring Clupea harengus pallasi recruitment in B.C..

Story, G.M., Kirwin, W.J. and Widdowson, J.D.A. 1990. Dictionary of Newfoundland English. 2nd Edition. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Stresemann, E. 1974. Exkursionsfauna für die Gebiete der DDR und der BRD. Band 3, Wirbeltiere. Volk und Wissen, Berlin.

Swedish Museum of Natural History. 1999. NRM Ichthyology collection database. Ichthyology Section, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History.

Thiel, R., Cabral, H. and Costa, M.J. 2003. Composition, temporal changes and ecological guild classification of the ichthyofaunas of large European estuaries - a comparison between the Tagus (Portugal) and the Elbe (Germany). Journal of Applied Ichthyol 19(5): 330-342.

Thiel, R., Mehner, T., Köpcke, B. and Kafemann, R. 1996. Diet niche relationship among early life stages of fish in German estuaries. Marine and Freshwater Research 47: 123-136.

Thurow, F. 1976. Fischereiresourcen der Ostsee und ihre Bedeutung für die deutsche Kutterfischerei. Arbeiten Deutsch, Fischereiverbandes 17: 20-51.

Tibbo, S.N. 1957. Herring of the Chaleur Bay area. Bulletin of Fish Research Board of Canada 111: 85-102.

Tibbo, S.N., Messieh, S.N and Burnett, C.D. 1969. Catch statistics - length and age composition Gulf of St. Lawrence Herring. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Technical Report.

Tiffert, K. 1986. Fischereiliche und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Sportangelei in der Kieler Bucht. Diplomarbeit, Institut für Meereskunde, Christian-Albrecht Universität.

Toresen, R. 1986. Length and age at maturity of Norwegian spring spawning herring for the year-classes 1959-1961 and 1973-1978..

Toresen, R. 1988. Growth in the Norwegian spring-spawning herring for the year classes 1950-1960 and 1973-1983. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen.

TRAC. 2006. Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank Herring Stock Complex. TRAC Status Report 2006/01. Transboundry Resource Assessment Committee.

Turan, C., Carvalho, G.R. and Mork, J. 1998. Molecular genetic analysis of Atlanto-Scandian herring (Clupea harengus) populations using allozymes and mitochondrial DNA markers. Journal of Marine Biolocial Association U.K. 78(1): 269-283.

Ugland, K.I., Jodestol, K.A., Aspholm, P.E.,Kroyer, A.B. and Jakobsen, T. 1993. Fish consumption by invading harp seals off the Norwegian coast in 1987 and 1988. ICES Journal of Marine Science 50: 27-38.

Vasil'ev, V.P. 1980. Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. Journal of Ichthyology 20(3): 1-38.

Watkinson, S. 1999. An annotated list of Tsimshian (Sm'algyax) words pertaining to the marine ecosystem. In: N. Haggan and A. Beattie (eds), Back to the Future: Reconstructing the Hecate Strait Ecosystem, pp. 28-38. Fisheries Centre Research Reports.

Watson, R., Gelchu, A. and Pauly, D. 2001. Mapping fisheries landings with emphasis on the North Atlantic. In: Zeller, D., Watson, R. and Pauly, D. (eds).

Weber, W. 1970. Untersuchungen an den Beständen des Herings (Clupea harengus L.) der Westlichen Ostsee. Kiel University..

Went, A.E.J. 1957. List of Irish fishes. Department of Lands, Fisheries Division, Dublin.

Wespestad, V.G. 1982. Cohort analysis of catch data on Pacific herring in the Eastern Bering Sea, 1959-1981.

Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1 - Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigaste. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Rome, Italy.

Winkler, H.M., Skora, K., Repecka, R., Ploks, M., Neelov, A., Urho, L., Gushin, A. and Jespersen, H. 2000. Checklist and status of fish species in the Baltic Sea. ICES Committee Meetings Documents, CM 2000/Mini-Symposium on Defining the Role of ICES in Supporting Biodiversity Conservation (11).

Winters, G.H. and Wheeler, J.P. 1987. Recruitment dynamics of spring-spawning herring in the Northwest Atlantic. Canada Journal of Fish Aquatic Sciece 44: 882-900.

Wonham, M.J., Carlton, J.T., Ruiz, G.M. and Smith, L.D. 2000. Fish and ships: relating dispersal frequency to success in biological invasions. Marine Biology 136(6): 1111-1121.

Wosnitza, C.V. 1975. Die Nahrung von Fischbrut in der westlichen Ostee. Berichte der Deutschen Wissenschaftlichen Kommission für Meeresforschung 24: 79-92.

Yearsley, G.K., Last, P.R. and Morris, G.B. 1997. Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota (CAAB): an upgraded and expanded species coding system for Australian fisheries databases. CSIRO Marine Laboratories Report. CSIRO Marine Laboratories, Australia.


Citation: Herdson, D. & Priede, I. 2010. Clupea harengus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 October 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided