Naemorhedus caudatus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CETARTIODACTYLA BOVIDAE

Scientific Name: Naemorhedus caudatus
Species Authority: (Milne-Edwards, 1867)
Common Name(s):
English Long-tailed Goral, Chinese Goral
French Goral À Queue Longue
Taxonomic Notes: No subspecies are recognized by Grubb (2005), although previous taxonomies recognized various subspecies.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Duckworth, J.W., MacKinnon, J. & Tsytsulina, K.
Reviewer(s): Harris, R. & Festa-Bianchet, M. (Caprinae Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable because of a population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the last three generations (approximately 21 years), inferred from over-exploitation, shrinkage in distribution, and habitat destruction and degradation.
History:
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Indeterminate (Groombridge 1994)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Long-tailed goral are found in eastern Russia (Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories), northeastern China, the Republic of Korea, and the Democratic People’s Republic (DPR) of Korea (Grubb, 2005). In Russia, long-tailed goral were previously distributed along almost the entire southern half of Sikhote-Alin range, (i.e. the entire Primorsky Territory and southern part of Khabarovsk Territory) and on the southern end of the Bureya range, although its occurrence in this last area is uncertain. In the 1960s and 1970s goral were repeatedly observed along the left tributaries of the Khor river, along the Kafen, Chuken and Sukpay rivers, on the western slopes of Central Sikhote-Alin (approximately 47°N, 137°E) (Dunishenko, 1983). The third part of this species range occupies mostly the eastern slope of Sikhote-Alin along the coast of the Sea of Japan, between 43°40'N and 45°N, and also all the southern end of Sikhote-Alin range (Myslenkov and Voloshina, 1989). The fourth part occurs along the Chinese-Russian border in the Khasan region. A fifth area reportedly exists along the same border south of Khanka lake. Its distribution within these parts is patchy because goral are confined to specific habitat—steep rocky slopes covered with sparse, montane broad-leaved forest, from sea level to about 1,000 m (Heptner et al., 1961).

In China the long-tailed goral is found in the northeast, and stretches along the Xiao Hinggan Ling mountains (Lesser Khingan range), along the lower reaches of Sungari and Amur rivers in eastern Jilin and Heilong Jiang, and eastern Liaoning, and includes the Changbaishan range (Jilin) on the border with North Korea (Wang 2002, Smith and Xie 2008).

In DPR Korea, little is known of the recent distribution of this species (Shackleton, 1997). It is likely that it occurs (or occurred) in the Hamgyong mountains which lie inland from the northeastern coastline, and in the Taebaek mountains in the southwest and which continue into the Republic of Korea. A third area where it may occur is the Nanghim mountains in the north-central part of North Korea. These are extensions of the Changhai mountains from Jilin (China).

In the Republic of Korea, it is restricted to the Seorak mountains at the northern end of the Taebaek range (Won 1997).
Countries:
Native:
China; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Russian Federation
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: In 1977, the total number in Russia was estimated at 600 to 750 animals (Bromley, 1977). Myslenkov and Voloshina (1989) indicated no decline in numbers or disappearance of any known local population, and that numbers along the Sea of Japan may have been slowly increasing. Lazo District has about 300 animals, Terneisky District around 250, Olginsky District 80, and Dalnegorsky District 15 to 20 goral. Population density in several places, for example in Sikhote-Alin Reserve, reaches 35 animals/km². In South Korea, less than 50 animals are estimated to remain on Konbong mountain in Konsong-gun, Kangwon Province, near the demilitarised zone (DMZ) (Won, 1988).

There are no estimates for DPR Korea. Won (1997) estimated less than 50 animals, but the basis for this is unclear. There are no reliable populations estimates for long-tailed goral in China. Smith and Xie (2008) considered it to be much reduced in numbers.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species inhabits steep mountainous areas and will sometimes use evergreen forests near cliffs, but primarily stays within rugged, rocky terrain. It inhabits steep and rocky terrain in evergreen and deciduous forests, especially with exposed grassy ridges from about 500-2,000 m asl. It eats a wide range of plant material: grass, herbs and shoots, leaves of small trees, nuts, and even some fruit. Group home range size is typically around 40 hectares, with males occupying marked territories of 22-25 hectares during the mating season. They typically live in small groups of 4-12 individuals, with older males usually solitary. Gorals are diurnal, and are most active in the early morning and late evening, but can be active throughout on overcast days. It keeps to steeper slopes where it is very agile over rocky crags and cliffs. The gestation length is 250-260 days (Myslenkov and Voloshina, 1989). Males and females reach sexual maturity at approximately three years, with a lifespan of up to 15 years or so. Mating takes place in early winter, and one, or rately two-three, kids born about six months later.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The threats in Russia are poaching, which may be increasing. In DPR Korea and the Republic of Korea, major threats to its survival include habitat loss due to forestry, agriculture, and poaching. Threats in China include hunting, snaring, habitat degradation, and competition from domestic livestock (Smith and Xie 2008). Hunting is both for traditional medicine, and meat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: All gorals are listed on Appendix I of CITES.

In Russia, it is listed as Category I of the Russian Red Data Book (Borodin 1984). It is protected in five Nature Reserves: Lazo Reserve harbours some, Sikhote-Alin Reserve has about 200, Zheleznyakovsky Sanctuary about 50, Vasilkovsky Sanctuary about 50, and an unknown but small number in Ussuri Reserve (Myslenkov and Voloshina, 1989). Captive breeding programs are being carried out in Lazo and Sikhote-Alin Reserves. Conservation measures proposed for Russia: 1) Reintroduce goral in appropriate areas formerly inhabited by the species to help restore its range. 2) Enlarge the size of the Sikhote-Alin Reserve to include the area south along the coastline. 3) Prohibit boats from approaching protected shores, keeping a distance of at least 0.5 km.

In North Korea, two areas proposed as Biosphere Reserves (Poore 1986), Mount Myohyung Nature Reserve (37,500 ha) 180 km NE of Pyongyang and Mount Paektu (Paekdu) Biosphere Reserve (132,000 ha; 41°56’N, 128°10’E), are reported to have goral. These proposed reserves lie across the border from the Changbaishan Biosphere Reserve in Jilin (China). Its status within North Korea is Indeterminate. Conservation measures proposed for North Korea: 1) Surveys of population status and distribution, followed by 2) development of conservation actions.

In South Korea, the Amur goral has been designated as a Natural Treasure by the Cultural Property Preservation Law in 1968, while hunting of all species was banned throughout the mainland between 1972 and 1981 (Won, 1979). Mount Seorak National Park, which contains goral, was approved as a Biosphere Reserve in 1982, and is protected by the National Monument Protection Law (No. 2233) of 1910, the law of Forestry (act 67.68) of 1908, and the National Park Law of 1962. Goral is found in two protected areas in South Korea; in Mount Seorak National Park, and rarely in Mount Odae National Park. Goral was designated as Natural Monument No. 217 on 14 November 1968 and theoretically receives full protection. Conservation measures proposed for South Korea: 1) Fully re-evaluate the species’ status. 2) Determine the feasibility of providing adequate protection through enforcing current protection measures, creating additional protected areas, or both. 3) Determine if captive breeding may also be required. However, without adequate habitat protection, this measure would be basically academic.

In China, long-tailed goral are categorized as a Class II species. It occus in most of the nature reserves located within its range in the North China and the Northeast China Regions. These include Taoshan and Jinpuohu (Heilongjiang); Chanbaishan and Zuojia (Jilin); and Suzihe (Liaoning).

The taxonomic validity of this species, and its relationship to other species in the genus Naemorhedus needs to be assessed.

Bibliography [top]

Borodin, A. M. (ed.). 1984. USSR Red Data Book. Lesnaya Promyshlennost, Moscow, Russia.

Bromley, G. F. 1977. Goral. Lesnaya Promyshlennost, Moscow, Russia.

Deuve, J. 1972. Les mammiferes du Laos. Ministry of Education, Laos.

Dunishenko, Yu. M. 1983. Findings of goral in the Khabarovsk Territory. Rare mammal species of the USSR and their conservation, pp. 170-171. Nauka, Moscow, Russia.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

Heptner, V. G., Nasimovich, A. A. and Bannikov, A. G. 1961. Mammals of the Soviet Union [in Russian]. Vischay Shkola, Nauka, Moscow, Russia.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Lekagul, B. and Mcneely, J. A. 1988. Mammals of Thailand. White Lotus Press, Bangkok, Thailand.

Li, D. H. 1989. Economic Animals of Qinghai. Qinghai People’s Publishing House, Xining, China.

Lovari, S. and Apollonio, M. 1993. Notes on the ecology of gorals Nemorhaedus spp. in two areas of South Asia. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 48: 365-374.

Myslenkov, A. I. and Voloshina, I. V. 1989. Ecology and behaviour of the Amur Goral. Nauka, Moscow.

Poore, D. 1986. Report of a mission to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. UNESCO, July 1986.

Shackleton, D.M. 1997. Wild Sheep and Goats and Their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives. Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae, IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Smith, A. and Xie, Y. 2008. The Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Wang, S. 1998. China red data book of endangered animals: Mammalia. Science Press, Beijing, China.

Wang, Song, Gu Jinghe, Hu Defu, Luo Ning, Zhang Yongzu, Wang Zhongyi, Yang Rongsheng and Cai Quiquan. 1997. China. In: D. M. Shackleton and the IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group (eds), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives. Status survey and action plan for Caprinae, pp. 148-172. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Wang, Y. X. 2003. A Complete Checklist of Mammal Species and Subspecies in China (A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference). China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, China.

Won, P-O. 1979. Nature conservation in Korea. Theses Collection, Kyung Hee University.

Won, P-O. 1988. Rare and endangered species of mammals in South Korea. Bulletin of the Institute of Ornithology 2: 61-65.

Won, P-O. 1997. South Korea. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild Sheep and Goats and Their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae, pp. 283-285. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.


Citation: Duckworth, J.W., MacKinnon, J. & Tsytsulina, K. 2008. Naemorhedus caudatus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 September 2014.
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