Acerodon humilis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Pteropodidae

Scientific Name: Acerodon humilis K. Andersen, 1909
Common Name(s):
English Talaud Fruit Bat, Talaud Acerodon, Talaud Flying-fox, Talaud Flying Fox
Spanish Zorro Volador De Talaud
Taxonomic Notes: Flannery (1995) suggested the holotype might be a chimera consisting of a mismatched skull from an individual of celebensis and a skin of a Pteropus hypomelanus. However, A. humilis has been shown to be a distinct species through the description of two more specimens by Feiler (1990) and the rediscovery of a living population by Riley (2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-06-20
Assessor(s): Mildenstein, T.
Reviewer(s): Battistoni, A.
Contributor(s): Hutson, A.M., Riley, J., Helgen, K. & Kingston, T.
Acerodon humilis is a range-restricted species, known from two islands: Salebabu and Karekaleng. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 1,500 km². It is severely fragmented and its forest habitat is declining due to logging. Also the number of individuals is declining due to hunting.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from the islands of Salebabu (95 km²) and Karekaleng (976 km²) in the Talaud group, in Indonesia. It was described in 1909 from three specimens and no further specimens had been recorded until Riley (2002) found the bat alive on the Talaud Islands. The type locality for this species is Lirong, Talaud Islands, Indonesia.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population sizes are continuing to be declining due to hunting.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This seems to be a forest-dependent species, but little information is available. This species is thought to be conspicuous due to its roosting habit. It is surprising that they have not been more commonly recorded. Forest habitat on Karakelang is in forest blocks protected under a newly established protected area and the edges of the island are used for agriculture, while on Salebabu there is predominantly agriculture with remnant forest in the low hills (Riley 2001).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Major threats for this species include hunting and habitat loss due to logging (Riley 2001).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Current conservation efforts
There is a protected area in the species’ range (Karekalang Selatan Hunting Park), but the level of protection for the species remains unknown within this park.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Conservation needs/priorities
Studies are needed on the species’ population sizes, distribution, and extent of occurrence throughout its range.  Monitoring of population sizes and locations over time are also important to establish whether these are stable or experiencing trends of decline.

The threats to these bats are poorly understood. Studies are needed on the species’ habitat requirements and on the effects of forest loss and degradation on the species’ population sizes/distribution. Research is also needed on the amount of hunting and the level of bushmeat trade, and the effects of that hunting on population sizes and persistence.

Effective roost site protection efforts are needed to minimize hunting mortality and disturbance to non-target individuals. Similar to most threatened flying foxes, local capacity building for conservation managers and education and awareness within local communities are greatly needed to support conservation efforts.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Feiler, A. 1990. On the mammals of the Sangihe and Talaud Islands. Zoologische Abhandlungen (Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden) 46: 75-94.

Flannery, T.F. 1995. Mammals of the South-West Pacific and Moluccan Islands. Comstock/Cornell, Ithaca, Ny, USA.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Riley, J. 2002. Mammals on the Sangihe and Talaud Islands, Indonesia, and the impact of hunting and habitat loss. Oryx 36(3): 288–296.

Riley, J. 2002. The rediscovery of Talaud Islands Flying Fox Acerodon humilis Andersen 1909 and notes on other fruit bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) from the Sangihe and Talaud islands, Indonesia. Faunistische Abhandlungen Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden Museum fuer Tierkunde 22(2): 393-410.

Citation: Mildenstein, T. 2016. Acerodon humilis. In: (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T138A115517951. . Downloaded on 22 August 2018.
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