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Monachus monachus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.1. Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)
suitability: Marginal  
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.1. Marine Intertidal - Rocky Shoreline
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.2. Marine Intertidal - Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.1. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.2. Marine Coastal/supratidal - Coastal Caves/Karst
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
timing: Ongoing   
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
timing: Ongoing   
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
timing: Ongoing   
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.2. Intentional use: (large scale)
timing: Past, Unlikely to Return   
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale)
timing: Ongoing   
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.5. Persecution/control
timing: Ongoing   
6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
timing: Ongoing   
6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.2. War, civil unrest & military exercises
timing: Ongoing   
8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.2. Problematic native species
timing: Ongoing   
9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
timing: Ongoing   
9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.1. Oil spills
timing: Ongoing   
9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
timing: Ongoing   
9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
timing: Ongoing   
Citation: Aguilar, A. & Lowry, L. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2013. Monachus monachus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 April 2014.
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