Macaca arctoides


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Macaca arctoides
Species Authority: (I. Geoffroy, 1831)
Common Name(s):
English Stump-tailed Macaque, Stumptail Macaque, Bear Macaque
French Macaque Brun
Spanish Macaca Ursin
Macaca brunneus (Anderson, 1871)
Macaca harmandi (Trouessart, 1897)
Macaca melanotus (Ogilby, 1839)
Macaca melli (Matschie, 1912)
Macaca rufescens (Anderson, 1872)
Macaca speciosus (Murie, 1875)
Macaca ursinus (Gervais, 1854)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3cd+4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Htun, S., Timmins, R.J., Boonratana, R. & Das, J.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable as due to reduction in the past and projected decline by at least 30% over the coming 30 years (three generations) due primarily to hunting and continued rates of habitat loss (mainly as a result of logging and timber extraction).
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in Cambodia, south-western China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan provinces), north-eastern India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura provinces), Lao PDR, north-western Peninsular Malaysia, northern Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. It appears to be absent from most of Myanmar and Thailand; records are only from the far north of Myanmar and from the border ranges between the two countries south into the peninsula, with a few dubious records in central and north-western Thailand. It was formerly found in eastern Bangladesh as well, but may now be extinct there. In China it is found south of 25°N. The species has been introduced to Hong Kong. In north-eastern India, it has long believed to be restricted to the south bank of the Brahmaputra River (Choudhury 1988), yet Srivastava and Mohnot (2001), J. Das (pers. comm.) and Chetry et al. (2003) report possible records of this species from Namdapha National Park, though they were morphologically distinct from other representatives of the species, and could represent an undescribed subspecies.
Cambodia; China; India; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Possibly extinct:
Hong Kong
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Populations in South Asia and in Myanmar are few and fragmented (Molur et al. 2003; S. Htun pers. comm.). This species is suspected to be extinct in Bangladesh, having last been recorded there in 1989 (M. Feeroz pers. comm.). It is very scarce all over its range in north-eastern India (Choudhury 2001). However, it is common in the mountains of Nagaland, Manipur, and eastern Mizoram (Choudhury 2001). In China the species is still common in Yunnan, though the populations are thought to be lower in the eastern portions of its range (Zhang et al. 2002); there is an estimated 3,500 individuals remaining in the country, but in many places, the populations have gone extinct locally (Chang pers. comm.). There are no available population estimates for this taxon in Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Cambodia and Thailand (R. Boonratana pers. comm.), although the population is likely to be large, as the species is frequently encountered throughout the range of distribution in these countries.

Populations of this species are critically threatened in India, declining in Myanmar, stable in Thailand, and declining rapidly in China and Viet Nam. There are some declines in Lao PDR and Cambodia. Future declines are predicted to be faster in Lao PDR, Viet Nam, India, Myanmar and China due to habitat loss and/or hunting.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species ranges from tropical semi-evergreen forest to tropical wet evergreen forest and tropical moist deciduous forest. It prefers dense evergreen forests (Choudhury 2001). Srivastava and Mohnot (2001) report it from lowland semi-evergreen forests to monsoon and montane forests. In India it occurs at elevations of 50-2,700 m (Molur et al. 2003; Choudhury 2001, 2002; Srivastava and Mohnot 2001), between 200 and 2,200 m in Myanmar (Htun pers. comm.), and up to 2,400 m in China (X. Jiang pers. comm.); in Viet Nam, Lao PDR and Cambodia it is predominantly found above 400 m, while in karst limestone environments it is found in much lower elevations (R. Timmins pers. comm.). It is considered arboreal as well as terrestrial, and is diurnal. It feeds primarily on seeds and fruits. It has a generation time of 10-12 years (Molur et al. 2003). It eats fruit, insects, small vertebrates, and immature leaves, and will also raid crops for potatoes and rice. It occurs widely in the hill and mountain areas of Viet Nam, Lao PDR and Cambodia (R. Timmins pers. comm.). In Thailand it is widespread but discontinuous, in forests associated with limestone, and other forest habitats (R. Boonratana pers. comm.). In China it is found in broadleaved evergreen forests, and sometimes in secondary forests close to farmlands (X. Jiang pers. comm.)
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat disturbances affecting this species' survival include selective logging, timber and firewood collection for charcoal, building roads, dams, power lines and fisheries, deliberately set fires, fragmentation, and soil loss/erosion. These animals are hunted and traded for food, sport and traditional “medicine,” and accidental mortality due to trapping occurs. There is a local trade for bones, meat for food and the live animals as pets (Molur et al. 2003).

In India much of its habitat is affected by Jhum cultivation (shifting or slash-and-burn) (Srivastava and Mohnot 2001). It has also been indiscriminately hunted to the brink of extinction over almost its entire distribution in this country (Srivastava and Mohnot 2001).

In Viet Nam, this species is heavily targeted for use in traditional “medicine,” both in country and for trade with China. Within Lao PDR, Viet Nam and Cambodia, hunting levels for food is also very high. Habitat loss is a relatively lower threat compared to hunting (R. Timmins pers. comm.).

In Myanmar, logging and timber extraction are major threats. Commercial rubber plantations, hunting, and trade of animals parts with China are all major threats to this species.

In China, hunting and habitat loss have reduced in population of this species, and it is locally extinct in some places.

In Thailand, habitat loss is a major threat, while hunting is prevalent, but not a significant threat to the species (R. Boonratana pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Internationally, this species is listed under Appendix II in CITES. Regionally, India lists it as schedule II under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (Srivastava and Mohnot 2001) amended up to 2002. The species is also protected in national wildlife acts of Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Thailand, and Myanmar.

Stump-tailed macaques are found in a number of protected areas throughout their range, including: Balpakram National Park, Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary, Murlen National Park (India); Huay Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary (Thailand). They may possibly occur in Namdapha Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary (India), and in Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area (Lao PDR).

Bibliography [top]

Chetry, D., Medhi, R., Biswas, J., Das, D. and Bhattacharjee, P. C. 2003. Nonhuman primates in the Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, India. International Journal of Primatology 24(2): 383-388.

Choudhury, A. 1988. Priority ratings for conservation of Indian primates. Oryx 22: 89-94.

Choudhury, A. 1998. A survey of primates in the Jaintia Hills. American Society of Primatology 22(3): 8-9.

Choudhury, A. 2001. Primates in Northeast India: An overview of their distribution and conservation. ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas 1(1): 92-101.

Choudhury, A. 2002. Status and conservation of the stump-tailed macaque Macaca arctoides in India. Primate Report 63: 63-72.

Fooden, J., Quan, G. Q., Wang, Z. R. and Wang, Y. X. 1985. The stumptail macaques of China. American Journal of Primatology 8(1): 11-30.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Molur, S., Brandon-Jones, D., Dittus, W., Eudey, A., Kumar, A., Singh, M., Feeroz, M. M., Chalise, M., Priya, P. and Walker, S. 2003. Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Managment Plan Report. Workshop Report, 2003. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.

Srivastava, A. and Mohnot, S. M. 2001. Distribution, conservation status and priorities for primates in Northeast India. ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas 1(1): 102-108.

Zhang, Y., Chen, L., Qu, W. and Coggins, C. 2002. The Primates of China: Biogeography and Conservation Status. Asian Primates 8(1-2): 20-22.

Citation: Htun, S., Timmins, R.J., Boonratana, R. & Das, J. 2008. Macaca arctoides. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 28 August 2015.
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