Hapalemur griseus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES LEMURIDAE

Scientific Name: Hapalemur griseus
Species Authority: (Link, 1795)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name/s:
English Eastern Lesser Bamboo Lemur, Lesser Bamboo Lemur, Grey Gentle Lemur, Bamboo Lemur
French Hapalémur Gris, Petit Hapalémur
Spanish Lemur Cariancho
Synonym/s:
Hapalemur ranomafanensis Rabarivola, Prosper, Zaramody, Andriaholinirina & Hauwy, 2007
Taxonomic Notes: Most earlier authors recognized three species of bamboo lemur: H. griseus (with at least three subspecies); H. aureus, and H. simus. Groves (2001) elevated two subspecies of H. griseus to full species status (alaotrensis and occidentalis) and also transferred to H. simus to the genus Prolemur. More recently, Rabarivola et al. (2007) described two additional subspecies of H. griseus, namely H. g. gilberti from Beanamalao, between the Onive and Nosivolo Rivers, and H. g. ranomafanensis, from the area of Ranomafana. Although colour details were mentioned in the type description of H. g. ranomafanensis, their status is impossible to determine because at the same time no such details were given for H. g. griseus; the essence of the new subspecies was, in effect, that it is chromosomally polymorphic at Ranomafana and Ambongo (2n = 54, 55 or 56, whereas in H. g. griseus 2n = always 54), while at Ambolomavo, Bemaraha and Vatoalatsaka, also ascribed to this new subspecies, only 2n=56 occurs. A subspecies apparently based, at least on present evidence, on the occurrence of a polymorphism cannot be maintained (see Mittermeier et al. 2008). Mittermeier et al. (2008) recognized gilberti and griseus as full species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor/s: Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P.
Reviewer/s: Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable as the species is thought to have undergone a reduction of more than 30% over the past 27 years (assuming a generation length of 9 years) due primarily to a decline in area and quality of habitat within the known range of the species and levels of exploitation due to hunting.
History:
1988 Insufficiently Known (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
1986 Insufficiently Known (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to Madagascar. In the wake of the study of Rabarivola et al. (2007), this species has a more restricted distribution in the eastern rainforests than previously believed, being found from about Lake Aloatra south to about Ranomofana (where it is then gradually replaced by H. meridionalis). Further, based on the findings of Rabarivola et al. (2007), animals in western Madagascar from the Tsingy de Bemaraha, Tsiombikibo, Baie de Baly, Tsingy de Namoroka and Bongolava regions between the Mahavavy du Sud and the Tsiribihina Rivers also are H. griseus (they were formerly considered to be H. occidentalis). Upper elevation limit unclear as animals from 1,600 m on the Andringitra Massif are now either H. meridionalis or hybrids between H. griseus and H. meridionalis).
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Common. Pollock (1979) estimated population density at 47-62 individuals/km² at Périnet.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species occurs in various types of eastern forest, but is found at its highest densities near stands of bamboo and bamboo vines. Bamboo constitutes at least three-quarters of the diet, primarily new shoots and leaf. Group size varies between two and seven, and groups can contain more than one breeding female. Reports of home range size vary from 6-10 ha at Analamazaotra to as much as 15-20 ha at Ranomafana. The birth season for this species is essentially October through January, and a single young is the rule; the inter-birth interval is typically one year (Mittermeier et al. 2008, and references therein).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Hunting is a major threat to this species, and it also commonly kept as a pet. Habitat loss due to slash-and-burn practices and due to clearing of bamboo stands is also a threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It occurs in a number of protected areas: five national parks (Baie de Baly, Tsingy de Bemaraha, Tsingy de Namoroka, Mantadia, and Ranomafana), one strict nature reserve (Tsingy de Bemaraha) and five special reserves (Bemarivo, Kasijy, Ambohitantely, Analamazaotra, and Mangerivola) (Mittermeier et al. 2008). The bamboo lemurs in Kalambatitra presumably are now presumably H. meridionalis, but this requires confirmation; likewise, animals in Andringitra National Park, Pic d’Ivohibe and Manombo may represent either H. meridionalis or hybrids with H. griseus. Further work is now needed to ascertain the limits of distribution of species and the described subspecies.

Bibliography [top]

Mittermeier, R., Louis, E., Hawkins, F., Langrand, O., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Rasoloarison, R., Rajaobelina, S. and Richardson, M. 2008. Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edition. Conservation International.

Pollock, J. J. 1979. Spatial distribution and ranging behavior in lemurs. In: G. A. Doyle and R. D. Martin (eds), The Study of Prosimian Behavior, pp. 359 – 409. Academic Press, New York, USA.

Rabarivola, C., Prosper, P., Zaramody, A., Andriaholinirina, N. and Hauwy, M. 2007. Cytogenetics and taxonomy of the genus Hapalemur. Lemur News 12: 46-49.

Rumpler, Y. 2004. Complementary approaches of cytogenetics and molecular biology to taxonomy and the study of speciation process in lemurs. Evolutionary Anthropology 13: 67-78.

Citation: Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V.N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R.A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J.C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. 2008. Hapalemur griseus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 April 2014.
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