Halichoerus grypus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Bibliography [top]

Anderson, S. S. and Fedak, M. A. 1985. Grey seal males: energetic and behavioural links between size and sexual success. Animal Behavior 33: 829-838.

Baker, J.R. and Baker, R. 1988. Effects of environment on grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup mortality. Studies on the Isle of May. Journal of Zoology (London) 216: 529-537.

Baker, S. R., Barrette, C. and Hammill, M. O. 1995. Mass-Transfer during lactation of an ice-breeding pinniped, the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), in Nova-Scotia, Canada. Journal of Zoology (London) 236: 531-542.

Beck, C.A., Bowen, W.D. and Iverson, S.J. 2003a. Seasonal energy storage and expenditure in a phocid seal: evidence of sex-specific trade-offs. Journal of Animal Ecology 72: 280-291.

Beck, C.A., Bowen, W.D., McMillan, J.I. and Iverson, S.J. 2003b. Sex differences in the diving behaviour of a size-dimorphic capital breeder: the grey seal. Animal Behavior 64: 1-13.

Beck, C. A., Iverson, S.J., Bowen, W.D. and Blanchard W. 2007. Sex differences in grey seal diet reflect seasonal variation in foraging behaviour and reproductive expenditure: evidence from quantitative fatty acid signature analysis. Journal of Animal Ecology 76: 490-502.

Bergman, A., Bergsrand, A. and Bignert, A. 2001. Renal lesions in Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica). Ambio 30: 397-409.

Bjørge, A., Oien, N., Hartvedt, S., Bothun, G. and Bekkby, T. 2002. Dispersal and bycatch mortality in gray, Halichoerus grypus, and harbor, Phoca vitulina, seals tagged at the Norwegian coast. Marine Mammal Science 18: 963-976.

Boness, D. J., Anderson, S. S. and Cox, C. R. 1982. Functions of female aggression during the pupping and mating season of grey seals, Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius). Canadian Journal of Zoology 60: 2270-2278.

Boness, D.J. and James, H. 1979. Reproductive behaviour of the grey seal, Halichoerus grypus (Fab.), on Sable Island, Nova Scotia. Journal of Zoology, London 188: 477-500.

Bonner, W.N. 1981. Grey seal Halichoerus grypus Fabricius, 1791. In: S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of marine mammals, Vol. 2: Seals, pp. 111-144. Academic Press.

Boskovic, R., Kovacs, K. M., Hammill, M. O. and White, B. N. 1996. Geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 74: 1787-1796.

Bowen, W.D. and Harrison, G.D. 1994. Offshore Diet Of Grey Seals Halichoerus grypus Near Sable Island, Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series 112: 1-11.

Bowen, W.D., and Siniff, D.B. 1999. Distribution, population biology, and feeding ecology of marine mammals. In: J.E., Reynolds, III and S.A. Rommel (eds), Biology of Marine Mammals, pp. 423-484. Smithsonian Press, Washington, D.C.

Bowen, W.D., den Heyer, C.E., McMillan, J.I., and Iverson S.J. 2015. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals. Ecology and Evolution 5: 1412-1424.

Bowen, W.D., Iverson, S.J., McMillan J.I. and Boness, D.J. 2006. Reproductive performance in grey seals: age-related improvement and senescence in a capital breeder. Journal of Animal Ecology 75: 1340-1351.

Bowen, W.D., Lawson, J.W. and Beck, B. 1993. Seasonal and geographic variation in the species composition and size of prey consumed by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on the Scotian shelf. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 50: 1768-1778.

Bowen, W. D., McMillan, J. I. and Blanchard W. 2007. Reduced population growth of gray seals at Sable Island: evidence from pup production and age of primiparity. Marine Mammal Science 23(1): 48–64.

Breed, G.A., Bowen, W.D., McMillan, J.I. and Leonard, M.L. 2006. Sexual segregation of seasonal foraging habitats in a non-migratory marine mammal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 273: 2319-2326.

Breed, G.A., Jonsen, I.D., Myers, R.A., Bowen, W.D. and Leonard, M.L. 2009. Sex-specific, seasonal foraging tactics of adult grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) revealed by state--space analysis. Ecology 90(11): 3209-3221.

Chapskii, K.K. 1975. Obosnavanie dvukh novykh podvidov nastoyashchikh tyulenei semeistva Phocidae. Trudy Zoologischeskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 53: 282-333.

Committee on Taxonomy. 2014. List of marine mammal species and subspecies. Society for Marine Mammalogy. Available at: (Accessed: 4 February 2014).

DFO. 2011. Stock assessment of Northwest Atlantic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report 2010/091.

Duignan, P. J., Saliki, J. T., S. Aubin, D. J., Early, G., Sadove, S., House, J. A., Kovacs, K. M. and Geraci, J. R. 1995. Epizootiology of morbillivirus infection in North American harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and gray seals (Halichoerus grypus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31: 491-501.

Fedak, M. A. and Anderson, S. S. 1982. The energetics of lactation: accurate measurements from a large wild mammal, the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). Journal of Zoology (London) 198: 473-479.

Hall, A. 2002. Gray seal Halichoerus grypus. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig, J. and G. M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 522-524. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Haller, M.A., Kovacs, K.M. and Hammill, M.O. 1996. Maternal behaviour and energy investment by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) breeding on land-fast ice. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74: 1531-1541.

Hammill, M.O., Stenson, G.B., Swain, D.P. and Benoit, H.P. 2014b. Feeding by grey seals on endangered stocks of Atlantic cod and white hake. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71: 1332-1341.

Hammond, P. S., Hall, A. J. and Prime, J. H. 1994. The diet of grey seals in the Inner and Outer Hebrides. Journal of Applied Ecology 31: 737-746.

Harding, K. C. and Härkönen, T. J. 1999. Development in the Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seal (Phoca hispida) populations during the 20th century. Ambio 28: 619-627.

Härkönen, T., Dietz, R., Reijnders, P., Teilmann, J., Harding, K., Hall, A., Brasseur, S., Siebert, U., Goodman, S. J., Jepson, P. D., Rasmussen, T. D. and Thompson, P. 2006. A review of the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus epidemics in European harbor seals. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 68: 115-130.

Härkönen, T., Harding, K. C., Goodman, S. J. and Johannsson, K. 2005. Colonization history of the Baltic harbor seals: Integrating archaeological, behavioral, and genetic data. Marine Mammal Science 21(4): 695-716.

Hauksson, E. 2007. Abundance of grey seals in Icelandic waters, based on trends of pup-counts from aerial surveys. In: T. Haug, M.O. Hammill, and D. Olafsdottir (eds), Grey seals in the North Atalntic and in the Baltic, pp. 85-98. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Tromso.

Hauksson, E. and Bogason, V. 1997. Comparative feeding of grey (Halichoerus grypus) and common seals (Phoca vitulina) in coastal waters of Iceland, with a note on the diet of hooded (Cystophora cristata) and harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 22: 125-135.

Hiby, L., Lundberg, T., Karlsson, O., Watkins, J., Jüssi, M., Jüssi, I. and Helander, B. 2007. Estimates of the size of the Baltic grey seal population based on photo-identification data. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 6: 163-175.

ICES. 2005. Report of the working group on marine mammal ecology (WGMME), 9-12 May 2005, Savonlinna, Finland. ACE:05. 137 pp..

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Iverson, S.J., Bowen, W.D., Boness ,D.J., and Oftedal, O.T. 1993. The effect of maternal size and milk energy output on pup growth in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Physiological Zoology 66: 61-88.

Jüssi, M., Härkönen, T., Jüssi, I. and Helle, E. 2008. Decreasing ice coverage will reduce the reproductive success of Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) females. Ambio 37: 80-85.

Kovacs, K M. 1987. Maternal behaviour and early behavioural ontogeny of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on the Isle of May, UK. Journal of Zoology (London) 213: 697-715.

Lesage, V. and Hammill, M.O. 2001. The status of the grey seal, Halichoerus grypus, in the Northwest Atlantic. Canadian Field-Naturalist 115(4): 653-662.

Lidgard, D.C., Boness, D.J., and Bowen, W.D. 2001. A novel mobile approach to investigating mating tactics in male grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Journal of Zoology 255: 313-320.

Lidgard, D.C., Boness, D.J., Bowen, W.D. and McMillan, J.I. 2003. Diving behaviour during the breeding season in the terrestrially breeding grey seal: implications for alternative mating tactics. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 1025-1033.

Lidgard, D.C., Boness, D.J., Bowen, W.D. and McMillan, J.I. 2005. State-dependent male mating tactics in the grey seal: the importance of body size. Behavioral Ecology 16: 541-549.

Lydersen, C., Hammill, M. O. and Kovacs, K. M. 1994. Activity of lactating ice-breeding grey seals, Halichoerus grypus, from the Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada. Animal Behavior 48: 1417-1425.

Mansfield, A. W. 1988. The grey seal. Underwater World. Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, Canada.

Manske, M., Stobo, W.T. and Schwarz, C.J. 2002. Estimation of age-specific probabilities of first return and annual survival rates for the male gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) on Sable Island, from capture-recapture data. Marine Mammal Science 18(1): 145-155.

McConnell, B. J., Fedak, M. A., Lovell, P. and Hammond, P. S. 1999. Movements and foraging areas of grey seals in the North Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 573-590.

Mellish, J-A.E., Iverson S.J., and Bowen W.D. 1999. Variation in milk production and lactation performance in grey seals and consequences for pup growth and weaning characteristics. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 72: 677-690.

Mikkelsen, B. 2007. Present knowledge of grey seals (Halicheorus grypus) in Faroese waters. In: T. Haug, M.O. Hammill, and D. Olafsdottir (eds), Grey seals in the North Atlantic and in the Baltic, pp. 79-84. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Tromso.

Mikkelsen, B., Haug, T. and Nilssen, K. T. 2002. Summer diet of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Faroese waters. North Atlantic Marine Science 87: 462-471.

Nilssen, K.T. and Haug, T. 2007. Status of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Norway. In: T. Haug, M.O. Hammill, and D. Olafsdottir (eds), Grey seals on the North Atlantic and in the Baltic, pp. 23-31. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, Tromso.

Noren, S.R., Boness, D.J., Iverson, S.J., McMillan, J. and Bowen W.D. 2008. Body condition at weaning affects the duration of the postweaning fast in gray seal pups (Halichoerus grypus). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 81: 269-277.

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.

Pomeroy, P. P., Anderson, S. S., Twiss, S. D. and McConnell, B. J. 1994. Dispersion and site fidelity of breeding female grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on North Rona, Scotland. Journal of Zoology (London) 233: 429-447.

Prime, J. H. and Hammond, P. S. 1990. The diet of grey seals from the southwestern North Sea assessed from analyses of hard parts found in faeces. Journal of Applied Ecology 27: 435-447.

Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.

Ross, P. S., Visser, I. K. G., Broeders, H. W. J., van de Bildt, M. W. G., Bowen, W. D. and Osterhaus, A. D. M. E. 1992. Antibodies to phocine distemper virus in Canadian seals. Veterinary Record 130: 514-516.

Sette, L.A., Waring, G.T., Touhey, K., Sharp, S., Sharp, B. and Landry, S. 2009. Photographic surveys of entanglement occurrence at grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) haul-outs on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Poster presentation, 18th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals.

Sjoberg, M. and Ball, J. P. 2000. Grey seal, Halichoerus grypus, habitat selection around haulout sites in the Baltic Sea: bathymetry or central-place foraging? Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 1661-1667.

St. Aubin, D. J. 1990. Physiologic and toxic effects on pinnipeds. In: J. R. Geraci and D. J. St. Aubin (eds), Sea mammals and oil: confronting the risks, pp. 103-127. Academic Press, New York, USA.

Thompson, D., Hammond, P. S., Nicholas, K. S. and Fedak, M. A. 1991. Movements, diving and foraging behaviour of grey seals Halichoerus grypus. Journal of Zoology (London) 224: 223-232.

Tinker, T. M., Kovacs, K. M. and Hammill, M. O. 1995. The reproductive behaviour and energetics of male grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) breeding on a landfast ice substrate. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 36: 159-170.

Twiss, S. D., Duck, C. and Pomeroy, P. 2003. Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup mortality not explained by local breeding density on North Rona, Scotland. Journal of Zoology (London) 259: 83-91.

Twiss, S. D., Pomeroy, P. P. and Anderson, S. S. 1994. Dispersion and site fidelity of breeding male grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on North Rona, Scotland. Journal of Zoology (London) 233: 683-693.

Waring G.T., Josephson E., Maze-Foley K., Rosel, P.E., editors. 2013. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments, 2012. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS NE 223. National Marine Fisheries Service, Woods Hole, MA.

Woodley, T. H. and Lavigne, D. M. 1991. Incidental capture of pinnipeds in commercial fishing gear. International Marine Mammal Association Technical Report 91-01: 35 pp.

Citation: Bowen, D. 2016. Halichoerus grypus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T9660A45226042. . Downloaded on 21 April 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided