Map_thumbnail_large_font

Halichoerus grypus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Bibliography [top]

Anderson, S. S. and Fedak, M. A. 1985. Grey seal males: energetic and behavioural links between size and sexual success. Animal Behavior 33: 829-838.

Baker, J. R. and Baker, R. 1988. Effects of environment on grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup mortality. Studies on the Isle of May. Journal of Zoology (London) 216: 529-537.

Baker, S. R., Barrette, C. and Hammill, M. O. 1995. Mass-Transfer during lactation of an ice-breeding pinniped, the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), in Nova-Scotia, Canada. Journal of Zoology (London) 236: 531-542.

Beck, C. A., Bowen, W. D. and Iverson, S. J. 2000. Seasonal changes in buoyancy and diving behaviour of adult grey seals. Journal Experimental Biology 203: 2323-2330.

Beck, C. A., Bowen, W. D., McMillan, J. I. and Iverson, S. J. 2003. Sex differences in the diving behaviour of a size-dimorphic capital breeder: the grey seal. Animal Behavior 64: 1-13.

Bergman, A., Bergsrand, A. and Bignert, A. 2001. Renal lesions in Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica). Ambio 30: 397-409.

Boness, D. J., Anderson, S. S. and Cox, C. R. 1982. Functions of female aggression during the pupping and mating season of grey seals, Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius). Canadian Journal of Zoology 60: 2270-2278.

Bonner, W. N. 1981. Grey seal Halichoerus grypus Fabricius, 1791. In: S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of marine mammals, Vol. 2: Seals, pp. 111-144. Academic Press.

Boskovic, R., Kovacs, K. M., Hammill, M. O. and White, B. N. 1996. Geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 74: 1787-1796.

Bowen, W. D., McMillan, J. I. and Blanchard W. 2007. Reduced population growth of gray seals at Sable Island: evidence from pup production and age of primiparity. Marine Mammal Science 23(1): 48–64.

Demaster, D. P., Fowler, C. W., Perry, M. F. and Richlen, M. F. 2001. Predation and competition: the impact of fisheries on marine mammal populations over the next one hundred years. Journal of Mammalogy 82(3): 641-651.

Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada. 2006. 2006 - 2010 Seal Management Measures. Available at: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/seal-phoque/reports-rapports/facts-faits/facts-faits20062010_e.htm..

Duignan, P. J., Saliki, J. T., S. Aubin, D. J., Early, G., Sadove, S., House, J. A., Kovacs, K. M. and Geraci, J. R. 1995. Epizootiology of morbillivirus infection in North American harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and gray seals (Halichoerus grypus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31: 491-501.

Fedak, M. A. and Anderson, S. S. 1982. The energetics of lactation: accurate measurements from a large wild mammal, the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). Journal of Zoology (London) 198: 473-479.

Hall, A. 2002. Gray seal Halichoerus grypus. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig, J. and G. M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 522-524. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Haller, M. A., Kovacs, K. M. and Hammill, M. O. 1996. Maternal investment by fast-ice breeding grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 74: 1531-1541.

Hammill, M. O., Gosselin, J. F. and Stenson, G. B. 2007. Abundance of Northwest Atlantic grey seals in Canadian waters. NAMMCO Scientific publication 6: 99-115.

Hammond, P. S., Hall, A. J. and Prime, J. H. 1994. The diet of grey seals in the Inner and Outer Hebrides. Journal of Applied Ecology 31: 737-746.

Harding, K. C. and Härkönen, T. J. 1999. Development in the Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seal (Phoca hispida) populations during the 20th century. Ambio 28: 619-627.

Harkonen, T., Dietz, R., Reijnders, P., Teilmann, J., Harding, K., Hall, A., Brasseur, S., Siebert, U., Goodman, S. J., Jepson, P. D., Rasmussen, T. D. and Thompson, P. 2006. A review of the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus epidemics in European harbor seals. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 68: 115-130.

Harkonen, T., Harding, K. C., Goodman, S. J. and Johannsson, K. 2005. Colonization history of the Baltic harbor seals: Integrating archaeological, behavioral, and genetic data. Marine Mammal Science 21(4): 695-716.

Hauksson, E. 1987. The status of the Icelandic seal populations. Oslo, Norway.

Hauksson, E. and Bogason, V. 1997. Comparative feeding of grey (Halichoerus grypus) and common seals (Phoca vitulina) in coastal waters of Iceland, with a note on the diet of hooded (Cystophora cristata) and harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 22: 125-135.

Hiby, L., Lundberg, T., Karlsson, O., Watkins, J., Jüssi, M., Jüssi, I. and Helander, B. 2007. Estimates of the size of the Baltic grey seal population based on photo-identification data. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 6: 163-175.

International Council for Exploration of the Sea. 2005. Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME). Savolinna, Finland.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Jüssi, M., Härkönen, T., Jüssi, I. and Helle, E. 2008. Decreasing ice coverage will reduce the reproductive success of Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) females. Ambio 37: 80-85.

Kiely, O. and Myers, A. A. 1998. Grey seal pup production at the Inishkea Island group, Co. Mayo and Blasket Islands, Co. Kerry. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 98: 113–122.

Kovacs, K. M. 1987. Maternal behaviour and early behavioural ontogeny of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on the Isle of May, UK. Journal of Zoology (London) 213: 697-715.

Learmonth, J. A., Macleod, C. D., Santos, M. B., Pierce, G. J., Crick, H. Q. P. and Robinson, R. A. 2006. Potential effects of climate change on marine mammals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 44: 431-464.

Lidgard, D. C., Boness, D. J., Bowen, W. D. and McMillan, J. I. 2003. Diving behaviour during the breeding season in the terrestrially breeding grey seal: implications for alternative mating tactics. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 1025-1033.

Lydersen, C., Hammill, M. O. and Kovacs, K. M. 1994. Activity of lactating ice-breeding grey seals, Halichoerus grypus, from the Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada. Animal Behavior 48: 1417-1425.

Mansfield, A. W. 1988. The grey seal. Underwater World. Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, Canada.

Mansfield, A. W. and Beck, B. 1977. The grey seal in eastern Canada. Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Canada.

Manske, M., Stobo, W. T. and Schwarz, C. J. 2002. Estimation of age-specific probabilities of first return and annual survival rates for the male gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) on Sable Island, from capture-recapture data. Marine Mammal Science 18(1): 145-155.

McConnell, B. J., Fedak, M. A., Lovell, P. and Hammond, P. S. 1999. Movements and foraging areas of grey seals in the North Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 573-590.

Mikkelsen, B., Haug, T. and Nilssen, K. T. 2002. Summer diet of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Faroese waters. North Atlantic Marine Science 87: 462-471.

Murie, D. J. and Lavigne, D. L. 1992. Growth and feeding habits of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70: 1604-1613.

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (ed.). 2007. Grey Seals of the North Atlantic and the Baltic.In: T. Haug, M. O. Hammill and D. Olafsdottir (eds), North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission.

Pomeroy, P. P., Anderson, S. S., Twiss, S. D. and McConnell, B. J. 1994. Dispersion and site fidelity of breeding female grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on North Rona, Scotland. Journal of Zoology (London) 233: 429-447.

Prime, J. H. and Hammond, P. S. 1990. The diet of grey seals from the southwestern North Sea assessed from analyses of hard parts found in faeces. Journal of Applied Ecology 27: 435-447.

Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World. Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.

Ross, P. S., Visser, I. K. G., Broeders, H. W. J., van de Bildt, M. W. G., Bowen, W. D. and Osterhaus, A. D. M. E. 1992. Antibodies to phocine distemper virus in Canadian seals. Veterinary Record 130: 514-516.

Sjoberg, M. and Ball, J. P. 2000. Grey seal, Halichoerus grypus, habitat selection around haulout sites in the Baltic Sea: bathymetry or central-place foraging? Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 1661-1667.

Soderberg, S. 1975. Feeding habits and commercial damage of seals in the Baltic. National. Swedish EPA 591: 66-78.

St. Aubin, D. J. 1990. Physiologic and toxic effects on pinnipeds. In: J. R. Geraci and D. J. St. Aubin (eds), Sea mammals and oil: confronting the risks, pp. 103-127. Academic Press, New York, USA.

Thompson, D., Hammond, P. S., Nicholas, K. S. and Fedak, M. A. 1991. Movements, diving and foraging behaviour of grey seals Halichoerus grypus. Journal of Zoology (London) 224: 223-232.

Tinker, T. M., Kovacs, K. M. and Hammill, M. O. 1995. The reproductive behaviour and energetics of male grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) breeding on a landfast ice substrate. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 36: 159-170.

Twiss, S. D., Duck, C. and Pomeroy, P. 2003. Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup mortality not explained by local breeding density on North Rona, Scotland. Journal of Zoology (London) 259: 83-91.

Twiss, S. D., Pomeroy, P. P. and Anderson, S. S. 1994. Dispersion and site fidelity of breeding male grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on North Rona, Scotland. Journal of Zoology (London) 233: 683-693.

Waring, G. T., Josephson, E., Fairfield, C. P. and Maze-Foley, K. 2005. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessments – 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum. NOAA.

Wiig, Ø. 1986. The status of the Grey seal Halichoerus grypus in Norway. Biological Conservation 38: 338-349.

Wiig, Ø. 1987. The grey seal, Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius) in Finnmark, Norway. Directorate of Fisheries.

Woodley, T. H. and Lavigne, D. M. 1991. Incidental capture of pinnipeds in commercial fishing gear. International Marine Mammal Association Technical Report 91-01: 35 pp.

Yodzis, P. 2001. Must top predators be culled for the sake of fisheries? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 78-84.


Citation: Thompson, D. & Härkönen, T. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2008. Halichoerus grypus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 October 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided