Map_thumbnail_large_font

Eschrichtius robustus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Bibliography [top]

Baird, R. W., Stacey, P. J., Duffus, D. A. and Langelier, K. M. 2002. An evaluation of gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) mortality incidental to fishing operations in British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4(3): 289-296.

Brownell Jr., R. L. and Swartz, S. L. 2006. The floating factory ship california operations in Californian waters, 1932-1937. International Whaling Commission, Scientific Committee.

Buckland, S. T. and Breiwick, J. M. 2002. Estimated trends in abundance of eastern Pacific gray whales from shore counts (1967/68 to 1995/96). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4(1): 41-48.

Donahue, M. A. and Brownell Jr., R. L. 2001. Twentieth century whaling statistics for eastern Pacific gray whales. International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee.

Doroshenko, N. V. 2000. Soviet Whaling for blue, gray, bowhead and right whales in the North Pacific Ocean, 1961-1979. Soviet Whaling Data (1949-1979), pp. 96-103. Center for Russian Environmental Policy, Moscow, Russia.

Henderson, D. A. 1984. Nineteenth century gray whaling: grounds, catches and kills, practices and depletion of the whale population. In: M. L. Jones, S. L. Swartz and S. Leatherwood (eds), The gray whale Eschrichtius robustus, pp. 159-186. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Hoyt, E. 2005. Marine Protected Areas for Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Earthscan.

International Whaling Commission. 1993. Report of the Special Meeting of the Scientific Committee on the assessment of gray whales. Report of the International Whaling Commission 43: 241-259.

International Whaling Commission. 2002. Report of the subcommittee on bowhead, right and gray whales. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4: 178-191.

International Whaling Commission. 2003. Report of the subcommittee on bowhead, right and gray whales. Journal of Cetcaean Research and Management 5: 226-247.

International Whaling Commission. 2004. Report of the subcommittee on bowhead, right and gray whales. Journal of Cetcaean Research and Management 6: 211-223.

International Whaling Commission. 2005. Report of the subcommittee on bowhead, right and gray whales. Journal of Cetcaean Research and Management 7: 189-209.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Jones, M. L. and Swartz, S. L. 2002. Gray whale Eschrichtius robustus. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig and J. G. M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 524-536. Academic Press.

Le Boeuf, B. J., Perez-Cotes M., H., Urban R., J., Mate, B. R. and Ollervides U., F. 2000. High gray whale mortality and low recruitment in 1999: potential causes and implications. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2(2): 85-99.

Leduc, R. G., Weller, D. W., Hyde, J., Burdin, A. M., Rosel, P. E., Brownell Jr., R. L., Wursig, B. and Dizon, A. E. 2002. Genetic differences between western and eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4(1): 1-5.

Mitchell, E. 1979. Comments on the magnitude of the early catch of east Pacific gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Report of the International Whaling Commission. 29: 307-314.

Mitchell, E. D. and Reeves, R. R. 1990. Aboriginal whaling for gray whales of the East Pacific stock. Scientific Committee on the Assessment of Gray whales., Seattle, WA, USA.

Moore, S. E. and Clarke, J. T. 2002. Potential impact of offshore human activities on gray whales. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4(1): 19-26.

Moore, S. E., Urban J. R., Perryman, W. L., Gulland, F., Perez-Cortes, H. M., Wade, P. R., Rojas-Bracho, L. and Rowles, T. 2001. Are gray whales hitting "K" hard? Marine Mammal Science 17(4): 954-958.

Perryman, W. L., Donahue, M. A., Perkins, P. C. and Reilly, S. B. 2002. Gray whale calf production 1994-2000: Are observed fluctuations related to changes in seasonal ice cover? Marine Mammal Science 18(1): 121-144.

Reeves, R.R. (ed.). 2005. Report of the Independent Scientific Review Panel on the Impacts of Sakhalin II Phase 2 on Western North Pacific Gray Whales and Related Biodiversity. IUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. 123 pp.

Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World. Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.

Rice, D. W. and Wolman, A. A. 1971. The life history and ecology of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). American Society of Mammalogists, Special Publication 3: 142 pp.

Rugh, D. J., Hobbs, R. C., Lerczak, J. A. and Breiwick, J. M. 2005. Estimates of abundance of the eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 1997-2002. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7(1): 1-12.

Weller, D. W., Burdin, A. M., Wursig, B., Taylor, B. L. and Brownell Jr., R. L. 2002. The western gray whale : a review of past exploitation, current status and potential threats. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4(1): 7-12.


Citation: Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G.P., Urbán, J. & Zerbini, A.N. 2008. Eschrichtius robustus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 August 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided