Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. pp. 378. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Bullock, L.H. and Smith, G.B. 1991. Seabasses (Pisces: Serranidae). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises, Volume VIII, Part II. Florida Marine Research Institute, Department of Natural Resources, St. Petersburg, Florida. 243 pp.
Claro, R., Lindeman, K.C. and Parenti, L.R. 2001. Ecology of the marine fishes of Cuba. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, USA.
Coleman, F.C. and Williams, S.L. 2002. Overexploiting marine ecosystem engineers: potential consequences for biodiversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 40-44.
Coleman, F.C., Baker, P. and Koenig, C.C. 2004. A review of Gulf of Mexico marine protected areas: successes, failures, and lessons learned. Fisheries 29: 10-21.
Craig, M.T. and Hastings, P.A. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with a revised classification of the Epinephelini. Ichthyological Research 54(1): 1-17.
FAO. 1977. FAO species identification sheets, fishing area 31 (W. Cent. Atlantic), no. Serran Epin 20. FAO, Rome.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2002. FAO yearbook. Fishery statistics: catches and landings. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2005. FishBase version (11/2005). World Wide Web electronic publication. Search FishBase.
García-Cagide, A., Claro, R. and Koshelev, B.V. 1994. Reproducción. In: R. Claro (ed.) Ecología de los peces marinos de Cuba, pp. 187-262. Inst. Oceanol. Acad. Cienc. Cuba. and Cen. Invest. Quintana Roo (CIQRO), México.
GMFMC. 2003. Commercial Fishing Regulations for Gulf of Mexico Federal Waters. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, Tampa, FL: 4.
Gutherz, E.J. 1982. Reef fish assessment, snapper/grouper stocks in the western north Atlantic south of Cape Hatteras, NC. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFC-80, pp. 124-141.
Hardy, J.D. 1978. Development of Fishes of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Three Volumes. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services.
Heemstra, P.C. and Randall, J.E. 1993. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol. 16. Rome, FAO.
IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 04 May 2006.
Lavett Smith, C. 1971. Revision of the American groupers: Epinephelus and allied genera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 146(2).
Manooch III, C.S. and Mason, D.L. 1987. Age and Growth of the Warsaw Grouper and Black Grouper from the southeast region of the United States. Northeast Gulf Science 9(2): 65-75.
Mazurek, R. 2004. Seafood Watch, Seafood Report, Commercially Important Groupers of the Gulf of Mexico & South Atlantic Regions. Monterey Bay Aquarium.
Musick, J.A., Harbin, M.M., Berkeley, S.A., Burgess, G.H., Eklund, A.M., Findley, L., Gilmore, R.G., Golden, J.T., Ha, D.S., Huntsman, G.R., McGovern, J.C., Parker, S.J., Poss, S.G., Sala, E., Schmidt T.W., Sedberry, G.R., Weeks, H. and Wright, S.G. 2000. Marine, estuarine, and diadromous fish stocks at risk of extinction in North America (Exclusive of Pacific Salmonids). Fisheries 25(11): 6-30.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2003. Final Amendment 13A to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region. Includes an Environmental Assessment, Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis, Regulatory Impact Review and Social Impact Assessment/Fishery Impact Statement. National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, South Carolina.
Parker, R.O. and Mays, R.W. 1998. Southeastern U.S. deepwater reef fish assemblages, habitat characteristics, catches, and life history summaries. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 138, pp. 1-41.
Richards, W.J. 1999. Preliminary guide to the identification of the early life history stages of serranid fishes of the western central Atlantic. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-419.
Robins, C.R. and Ray, G.C. 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, USA.
SAFMC. 2003. Commercial Fishing Regulations for South Atlantic Federal Waters. South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Miami, FL: 4.
|Citation:||Ng Wai Chuen & Huntsman, G. (Grouper & Wrasse Specialist Group) 2006. Hyporthodus nigritus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 August 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|